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What does Judaism believe regarding the nature of God? Is He a single being or multiple being as believed in most Christian denomination?

What is this "Absolute unity and singularity of God" means for the Jews?

If the Jews believe that God is multiple do they believe that the Messiah is one of the multiple persons of God? Or not?

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    Did you do any of your own research before asking this? – Double AA Oct 27 '13 at 0:08
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Here's a brief definition from Moshe Chaim Luzzatto's (early 18th century) Way Of God:

"God’s existence is absolutely simple, without combinations or additions of any kind. All perfections are found in Him in a perfectly simple manner. However, God does not entail separate domains — even though in truth there exist in God qualities which, within us, are separate… Indeed the true nature of His essence is that it is a single attribute, (yet) one that intrinsically encompasses everything that could be considered perfection. All perfection therefore exists in God, not as something added on to His existence, but as an integral part of His intrinsic identity… This is a concept that is very far from our ability to grasp and imagine…" (source: Wikipedia)

Also see the concise article from Aish.com here.

For a more detailed treatment, the classic sources are Gate of Unity from Duties of the Heart from Bachya Ibn Paquda, and Maimonides' Guide For The Perplexed.

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The first and last word for me as a Jew on the Unity is Devarim 6:3, the Shema:

Hear, O Israel, HaShem is our God, HaShem is ONE.

ONE. Not three. Not 72. ONE.

No son. No wife. No brother in laws. ONE.

Like the other answer says, it IS simple.

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in short, God is Eternal, i.e. without beginning. And that which is eternal is absolutely and ultimately infinite.

There cannot be two such Infinites, because then neither would be infinite, since each one "interferes" with the other. Hence neither would be eternal and both are created.

Therefore, God can only be One.

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