This is bothering me a lot.
Is God active (he changes things, tunes a little when it goes wrong) or he is passive or even he "passed away" when creating this Universe, meaning we are made from God himself.
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The Ramban on Shemot Perek 20, verse 2 comments on this issue. He speaks of how the events of the Exodus teach us many fundmental principles regarding God. Clearly the fact that God preformed the miracles of the plagues, splitting of the sea and the giving of the Torah at Sinai demonstrate Gods involvement in the destiny of man. It shows Hashem is in control of nature and can/does change nature. Furthermore, Ramban speaks of a side issue you just raised. He says "it is an indication of God's unity, as He said, that you (ie. Pharaoh) may know that there is none like me in all the world." The Ramban seems to hold that Hashem is a unity that can not be divided into parts. Therefore to say we are made from Hashem himself in a literal way, would suggest that there are parts to God and that he can share a part of himself to make humans. I am not exactly sure what you meant by the comment, but it does seem on the surface to conradict the notion of God's unity as well as suggest that we are in some way Godlike, comparible to God if you will, yet "there is none like Hashem in all the world".
I hope this addresses the issues you are bothered by.
God is active, as shown through this prayer (the modim):
We thankfully acknowledge that You are the Lord our G-d and G-d of our fathers forever. You are the strength of our life, the shield of our salvation in every generation. We will give thanks to You and recount Your praise, evening, morning and noon, for our lives which are committed into Your hand, for our souls which are entrusted to You, for Your miracles which are with us daily, and for Your continual wonders and beneficences. You are the Beneficent One, for Your mercies never cease; the Merciful One, for Your kindnesses never end; for we always place our home in You.
Bolding is mine but translation is from here. The idea expressed is that God is still active in our lives and the world around us, constantly.
Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi discusses this at great length in the second section of the Tanya. He proves that G-d is actively involved in the world and in fact recreates it every moment. Thus, everything that happens in this world is directed by Divine Providence. Even a leaf falling from a tree at a specific moment and landing somewhere is decided by G-d. You can read an English translation and commentary here.
see the Gate of Trust from Duties of the Heart. According to it God is fully directing everything that happens to you, including what happens to you from other human beings.
For example when someone does good to you, the correct outlook is to thank Gd for the good itself and the human person for his good intention. i.e. to understand that the good was from God and that the person or whatever was just an agent.
You may also want to have a look at the gate of unity of God there also for a good introduction to what we can possibly know about God.
Only god knows. The main assumption is that god is omnipotent. This meaning that all is known and perceived by god. Hence if god created everything and god is omnipotent, there can only follow the assumption that god knows what's to come. Alongside that knowledge, you've just added a philosophical argument of whether god could change the events to come if god wants to.