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Various sources say that "12,000 pairs" of Rabbi Akiva's students died between Pesach and Shavuos because they did not treat each other with respect. See Genesis Rabba 61:3, Ecclesiastes Rabba 11, Yalkut Shimoni Kohelet section 989, for parallel sources. Also see Tana Dbei Eliyahu Zuta chapter 22. This is cited in the Shulchan Aruch (OC 493:1) as the reason why we observe a mourning period between the two holidays.

But Rabbi Akiva was also known for his support for Bar Kochba, leading me to wonder whether -- not withstanding the statements otherwise in Midrashim (which sometimes aren't meant to be understood as the literal truth) -- Rabbi Akiva's students actually died fighting for Bar Kochba's unsuccessful revolt against the Romans. Are there any sources that support this? Is there any known sources that his students did fight for Bar Kochba?

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    The Gemora (Yevamos 62b) also brings the story, and says they died from a sickness called "askera". – Michoel Mar 6 '13 at 22:15
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    @ShimonbM: Bar Kochba, and Akiva's endorsement, are mentioned in the Yerushalmi Talmud Taanis 4:5-6 (68d-69a). See cojs.org/cojswiki/… – Bruce James Mar 7 '13 at 0:32
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    See torahmusings.com/2013/05/audio-roundup-87 . Rabbi Hershel Schachter quotes R' Yosef Eliyahu Henkin as saying "they died of the plague" was their coded way of saying "the Romans killed them." – Shalom May 10 '13 at 12:54
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    Shalom, to answer on all posted interesting questions and give proper sources on a subject of Rabbi Akiva and his 24,000 students plus the Bar Kokhba Revolt, one has to read a new book of Alexander Zephyr "Rabbi Akiva, Bar Kokhba Revolt and the Ten Tribes of Israel." This book was published by iUniverse in 2014 in paper back ISBN:278-1-4917-1256-6 (soft copy); and Electronic version ISBN:978-1-5917-1257-3. Available in all major book stores such as Amazon, Barn and Nobles, Chapters and others. Best wishes, A.Z. – user5338 Apr 29 '14 at 23:26
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    For those interested in the "Audio Roundup" in @Shalom's comment, I found an updated link on TorahMusings.com here, which links to Rav Schachter's shi'ur here. – Lee May 3 '15 at 7:03

10 Answers 10

11

Taken from this blog post (emphasis mine)

R. Eliezer Dunner, in his work Zichron Yosef Tzvi, offers a very novel reason for the celebration on Lag Ba-Omer. He says that we know that R. Akiva was a strong supporter of Bar Kochba. He suggests that R. Akiva students were soldiers in his army to fight the Romans and they died in this time period of Sefirah. During this time, on Lag Ba-Omer, the Jews were winning, that is why they turned this day into a great day of celebration.

ידענו כי ר' עקיבא היה הולך ונוסע ומלמד בכל תפוצת הארץ ובכל מקום היה לו תלמידים הרבה מאוד ועין שחושב לבר כוזבא כמשיח קרא כל תלמידיו להלחם בצד בר כוזבא ותחת רגליו נגד חיל האויבים... ואף על פי שבתחילה חלשו היהודים את אויביהם לפי חרב אחר כך גברו הרומיים ולכדו מישראל עיר ועיר ובאותה זמן היתה מלחמה בכל יום יום ובכל מלחמה נפלו ומתו הרבה אנשים מחיל בר כוזבא ובהן כמה תלמידי ר' עקיבא וכששקעה החמה בכל יום ויום פסקה המלחמה ואז נקברו כל המתים. ואפשר שבתוך כל המלחמות הללו שהיו יום יום ושבהם גברו האויביהם על ישראל היה יום אחד והוא ל"ג בעומר שגבר בו ישראל אותו יום שבו היה להם ישעות ה' בעת צרתם יום גבורה ותשועה אותו יום קבעו ליום שמחה לדור דורים וכמו כן שמעתי גם מפי הרב דק"ק פוזנא מוהר"ר זאב פיילכענפעלד ז"ל (זכרון יוסף צבי, סי' תצ"ג).

Translation of the bold parts: And since he (Rebbi Akiva) considered Bar Kosiba the Moshiach he called to his students to fight on the side of Bar Kosiba.

...And in each battle many soldiers of Bar Kosiba fell, among them students of Rebbi Akiva

  • It is hard to choose between your answer and Jake's. Rabbi Dunner (and family) are very distinguished and unquestionably haredi. Therefore, if he is taking this position, I'm quite impressed. Apologies to Jake for changing my accepted answer. – Bruce James Apr 29 '13 at 19:37
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    @BruceJames, No problem. If you read the post in the link, you'll see that Avraham Korman in his Pinu’ach Aggadot (pp. 190-210) cites others (not R. Dunner) that tie the death of the talmidim of R. Akiva to the rebellion of Bar Kochba and he goes further to explain the connection between this and Rashbi and other minhagim of Sefirah. I would be very interested to see what Rabbi Korman has to say, but his book seems to be not available online. – jake Apr 30 '13 at 4:02
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    In this video Rabbi David Bar-Hayim, head of Machon Shilo, asserts exactly this version of events. – Seth J May 20 '13 at 22:41
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    In volume 2 of his work The Sages Rabbi Dr. Binyamin Lau makes the same argument and cites many of the same sources as are found in this answer and the next. It seems that this is a popular theory in current academic scholarship. I'm not sure how it relates to the cessation of death on the 33rd day of the omer. – rikitikitembo Apr 13 '15 at 1:13
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That's a very interesting suggestion, and I'm surprised I've never put two and two together here. After some searching, I've found that a similar suggestion was made by Shlomo Yehuda Rapoport (Shir) in the journal Kerem Chemed (vol. 7, p. 183).

He suggests that the Romans chased and killed the students of R' Akiva on the suspicion that they were involved in the Bar Kochba revolt, like R' Akiva himself was. He supports this with the description of the students' death in the Iggeres R' Sh'rira Gaon:

והוה שמדא על התלמידים של ר' עקיבא

He posits that "שמדא" was a term used to refer to the Roman persecution.

And even though the Talmud (Yevamos 62b) identifies their death as being though "אסכרה", which means something like "suffocating" or some type of disease, Shir suggests that since the students were forced to flee to the desert, they very well could have died of thirst or hunger or disease. [Incidentally, see this aish.com article n.9: The Talmud says that the students died from the croup which is the English word for askara, a term which denotes choking. The association with Bar Kochba may explain this term, as Bar Kochba's death is described as taking place when a snake (a symbol of his sins) choked him: Jerusalem Talmud Ta'anit 4:5, Midrash Rabbah – Eicha 2:4.]

However, R' Yitzchak Isaac Halevi Rabinowitz in Doros HaRishonim (v.4, ch.31) disputes this idea by refuting the "proof" from R' Sh'rira's letter, and citing the above gemara in it's literal sense (i.e. they died in a plague). Rabinowitz also concludes that the incident with the 24,000 students actually happened before the destruction of the second Temple (by comparing with Talmud Bavli Nedarim 50a), in which case their deaths could of course not have been associated with Bar Kochba at all.

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    Excellent answer. – Double AA Mar 6 '13 at 23:17
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    R' Akiva had students before the churban? – Fred Mar 6 '13 at 23:36
  • @Fred, See Doros HaRoshonim v.4 ch.7, where he discusses this is greater detail (particularly pp. 459-460). – jake Mar 6 '13 at 23:47
  • @jake I read the first several pages so far. It's an interesting read, though I'm not totally convinced by his arguments that the students were pre-churban. +1 on the answer. – Fred Mar 7 '13 at 0:11
  • @jake, if he was 30 before the Hurban, and he started learning Torah at the age of 40, how would he have had 24,000 students before the Hurban? – Seth J Apr 25 '13 at 18:22
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The students mentioned in yevamoth could not have died in the times of Bar-Kochba. Firstly the talmud speaks of students in his (R. Akiba's) youth and students in his old age - so there had to be a respectable amount of time between the death of his first students and the studies with his latter students.

Secondly, R. Akiba was arrested in tishre after the fall of Betar and was killed two years later (137 or 138). He spent those two years in jail. (The five students were meanwhile getting ordained by R Yehuda ben Babba (Sanhedrin 14a), and then fleeing the land of Israel.) There was no time for R. Akiva to "go south" to teach the 5.(Anyway after Bar-Kochba the south was totally destroyed (see para 14 ) . Also R. Meir came first to R. Akiba but didn't have the pre-requisites so he studied with R. Yishmael and then returned to R. Akiba. R. Yishmael was killed in the beginning of the war...

So the first students would have had to die earlier. I guess there are maybe two other possibilites: they died during the Hurban or they died during the Kitos War?

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    Can you source the following statements: 1) R. Akiba was arrested in tishre after the fall of Betar and was killed two years later_ 2) He spent those two years in jail 3) R. Meir came first to R. Akiba 4) R. Yishmael was killed in the beginning of the war... – Menachem Jul 22 '13 at 7:24
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The Eitz Yosef in the new Moznayim print of Medrash Rabba in Bereishis 61 does say that they died `in one period between Pesach and Atzeres in milchamas beitar'. He makes a similar statement in Koheles Rabba 11, saying they died in Bar Kuzivas war. These lines were previously censored out.

It is questionable though, how to reconcile this historically in light of the medrashim that detail the fall of Beitar on the ninth of Av. We know Bar Cochba had a trained army and was catching bombardment and sending them back so apparently there was engagement before the wall was breached.

In support of assuming they died in a war against Rome is the Gemara having said they died of Askara, a type of asphyxiation. Although this is sometimes viewed as a question on this approach, I recently became aware that this would actually fit very well within the understanding of how the Roman method of crucifixion killed it's victims, often political prisoners, in the thousands at a time.

(see this link)

"Without any supplementary body support, the victim would die from muscular spasms and asphyxia in a very short time, certainly within two or three hours. Shortly after being raised on the cross, breathing would become difficult; to get his breath, the victim would attempt to draw himself up on his arms. Initially he would be able to hold himself up for 30 to 60 seconds, but this movement would quickly become increasingly difficult. As he became weaker, the victim would be unable to pull himself up and death would ensue within a few hours."

What always caught my attention with this approach is that every day when we bentch and say the bracha of hatov vihameitiv which was nisaken on the Harugei Beitar who didn't rot and were buried, we are commemorating the students of Rabbi Akiva among them. Way to bring tisha b'av, sefira, and birchas hamazon all together!

2

R' Hershel Schachter quotes R' Yosef Eliyahu Henkin who wrote in one of his essays that Rebbe Akiva's students were in fact killed in the Bar Kochba revolt. The Talmud hid this fact by mentioning their cause of death as being something ridiculously impossible. Namely, how can Rebbe Akiva who popularized loving one's fellow as much as himself, have all his students die from a lack of this behavior?

The shiur can be heard here. Listen at minute 8:55.

  • I had actually heard this a few times in the name of Rav Shechter as an oral tradition from Rabbi Y.Y.H. but this is the first time I heard it from his mouth. And he clearly says it's from an essay. – user6591 May 24 '16 at 19:04
  • note shalom's comment on the question judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/26881/… – Double AA May 24 '16 at 19:17
  • Ah k. Had I seen that before I bothered writing up an answer... Oh wait, I thought answers were for answering questions and comments were for clarifying the OP's intent? – user6591 May 24 '16 at 19:23
  • See Teshuvot Ivra 2, p. 212 – wfb May 3 '18 at 17:58
  • @wfb is that available online somewhere? – user6591 May 3 '18 at 22:33
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According to the information in the gemara and other places Rabbi Akiva was born in the year "0" and lived for 120 years, to the beginning of the Bar Kochba period under the first of the three people of that dynasty (father, son and grandson). He was 40 years old when he began studying (40 CE), so presumably he did not have students for a while after studying under R. Eliezer ben Hyrkanus. So if he began having students after the death of R. Yochanan Ben Zakkai, he was approximately 70-72 years old (72 CE).

It is difficult to imagine that 24,000 people were his direct students, as opposed to the idea that they followed his psakim. And then if he had to have had enough time to teach his later 5 students who replaced the 24,000 before he was killed in 120 CE, then he must have taught those five from around 100 or 110 CE. Of course we know that Rabbi Akiva came home to his wife and father in law Kalba Savua who was alive until the chorban. So according to this, Rabbi Akiva made his talmidim during his first 24 years of learning Torah.

But WHY do our sources not discuss the implications of such a major inyan of so many talmidei chachamim being lost at one time as they do other events after the chorban? And if it involved two SEPARATE events in the life of R. Akiva, what are the sources describing these two events? Thanks.

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    I thought there is no year 0. It goes 31 December 1 BCE to 1 January 1 CE. – Double AA Apr 25 '13 at 16:35
  • It was also my impression that we generally agre he was killed around 138 CE (end of the revolt), whihc puts his birth at 18 CE, and thus he was about 60 when the Second Temple was destroyed. – gt6989b Apr 25 '13 at 18:21
  • Information I've seen has his birth around the year 40-50CE. What are your sources that lead to your conclusion that he was born in the year "0"? – Seth J Apr 25 '13 at 19:02
  • S. Freiman's "Who's Who in the Talmud" (Jason Aronson, Inc. 1995), cites the Sif. Beracha end 36 for the proposition that he was born approximately 50 years before the destruction of the 2nd Temple and lived for 120 years. The Bar Kokchba revolt started in 132. Assuming Freiman is right, that would make Akiva 112 at the beginning of the revolt, eight years before his death. And since the Yerusahalmi says he supported Bar Kochba, I'm assuming he must have been alive. – Bruce James Apr 28 '13 at 20:53
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The use of 12,000 pairs in the mentioned in Yevamos 62b is interesting; if the counting was for purposes of the army, as posited by R Abramchik, why say 12,000 pairs (Zugim) instead of 24,000 people? It seems that pairs really does imply actual chavrusahs (paired students learning together and asking and answering each other's questions and generally assisting in each other's study) learning together, and then the question is where/how was this yeshiva run with so many students and one rabbi/leader being considered their true teacher? Alternatively, it could be that pairs were needed in Bar Kochbas army, perhaps for working together on chariots (one holds reins and the other shoots arrows/throws spears/uses sword)? Iirc there are sources in the Talmud about bar kochva's army and that the soldiers were very mighty and used horses, but it appeared as loners.

  • Welcome Michael. can you explain a little more your answer? – kouty May 24 '16 at 7:21
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the fact that the sources say he had 24000 students leads me to speculate that this number was known because of a count taken as they enrolled as part of bar kochba army- there a count would be taken-otherwise at that time there were no needs or practice of counting students---second rabbi chaim kolitz in his book rabbi akiva-says the wording pairs of pupils refers to going forth for military service

  • maybe the number is just a big estimate; or exaggeration. – mevaqesh May 25 '16 at 17:20
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In Tractate Peah in the Yerushalmi it states that the difference between King Achav's (who was regarded as a 'Rasha', a wicked person) army, and King David's army in that King Achav's army lost no men in battle as compared to the army of Kind David who was a 'Tzadik', a righteous person, who lost men in battle. That reason being people in King David's time spoke Lashon Hara and the people in King Achav's time did not. It is interesting to note that the reason stated in the Gemara for the death of Rabbi Akiva's students is they exhibited base-less hatred toward one another. We know this is the reason for the destruction of the second Temple with that story being found in Tractate Tannis. So putting these two stories together makes sense if they were in fact in battle and the reason for their death. Also usually death is not given in such cases only in cases brought before a Sanhedrin but if someone had a Rabbi who taught loving his fellow Jew and the student did go into battle and was not doing this then this would be the reason why he in fact he was killed in battle. Would the Gemara hide the fact that the students of Rabbi Akiva died in battle on purpose? Or were we just supposed to know that this was in fact the real reason why they did die in battle. Baseless hatred as I was taught was any reason that I personally think is a viable reason to hate...is baseless.

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It is an odd assumption that we would be celebrating a failed revolution of Lag Baomer.

Another point. There is actually no need for the Talmud Bavli to hide anything negative said of the Romans. Their Parthian hosts would be more than happy to hear such stuff. And in fact they didn't hide negative statements about Romans.

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    It is odd in general that anything is celebrated on Lag Baomer. It's not an early holiday so the fact that some later people decided to celebrate on it doesn't really indicate anything about R Akiva. – Double AA May 25 '16 at 13:20

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