Who knows eighty-three?
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In the year 2447, Moses was 80 the year that the Israelites left Egypt and Aaron was 83 (as noted here: Did Levi see Moshe and Aaron?); See also: Why does the posuk tell us how old Moshe was when he spoke to Pharoh?; See How old was Moshe at the splitting of the sea?; See here for slight contradiction based on Seder HaDorot: Moshe's age and the timeline of the exodus
Asaph ben Berechiah (11th-10th cent BCE) Israelite musician. He was one of the Levites appointed by David to supervise music in the Sanctuary. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are attributed to him. The sons of Asaph were singers in the Temple during the reign of the kings of Judah (10th-6th cent, BCE) and at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. See: What is known about Asaph son of Berechiah?
83 is 13 years into your 'second' lifetime (See Tehillim 90:10) attributing to some men having a 2nd bar mitzvah. See: Where does the custom of a second "bar mitzvah" at 83 come from?
Our forefather Ya'akov did not marry until he was 83 years old (Megillah 17a).Why did Yaakov wait to marry?
Originally, Psalm 83 followed the Chazzan's Kaddish (Kadish Titkabel) See Why are Ashre and Alenu considered communal prayers?
History of Aleinu: Shir Mizmor La'asaf Psalm 83 was institued after the Ga'Onic period See: Why no Kaddish yatom after alainu in siddur tefillo sfas yisrael, Shabbas Mincha?