What things are dangerous?
A.) Anything currently recognized by today's conventional medicine as dangerous.
B.) Anything codified into Halacha as dangerous.
The majority of medicinal statements in the Talmud were not codified into law by the Rambam or others. (In the 900s, the head of Babylon's yeshiva of Pumbedisa, R' Sherira Gaon, wrote: "the rabbis of the Talmud were not doctors, and wrote down the medicine of their day; do not attempt any Talmudic medicine unless our expert doctors today have established that it could do no harm.) The Rambam himself wrote in his medical advice as Halacha (parts of chapter 4 of Laws of Personality Traits), and again much of that did not make it into later sources of straight Halacha.
Something like "don't put coins in your mouth because diseased people may have handled them" appears Talmudically on down, and makes sense from our medical perspective today.
"Don't eat fish and meat together" is the interesting exception, something that doesn't seem to be borne out by medicine today, but clearly made it into all the halachic sources (Shulchan Aruch etc.). The Magen Avraham (commenting on OC173:2) acknowledges this is the exception to the rule, and shrugs his shoulders at how it came to be halacha.
Today, if you have a custom about these other safety things that appeared in non-canonical sources, by all means keep your custom, or talk to your rabbi if you feel you can't. Many such customs are described in the other answers here. Works such as the Hassidically-inclined Kitzur Shulchan Aruch have incorporated many such customs, and today we've seen a literary explosion of new books on these topics. If you have no such customs but feel it's right for you to adopt some of them, talk to your rabbi. If you have no such customs and don't want to adopt any, you're fine sticking with A. and B. above.