There are some things that we don't do because of the danger. Things we do not do because of Danger has a list of some of them.
Are these things dangerous to non-Jews as well?
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There is an interesting Gemara in Avodah Zarah (31b) which provides a partial answer to your question:
אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא ואימא לך מילתא מעלייתא דהוה אמר רב אבוך הכי אמר אבוך הני ארמאי זוקאני דהוו שתו גילויא ולא מתו איידי דאכלי שקצים ורמשים חביל גופייהו
Said Samuel to Hiyya bar Rav: "O son of a scholar, come let me tell you a good thing which your father Rav used to say. Thus said your father: "The reason why those swollen Arameans who drink what is kept uncovered suffer no fatal consequences is because through eating abominable and creeping things their bodies become immune from it.""
(translation adapted from Soncino)
It seems that some of the things which are considered dangerous are only considered so due to other factors having to do with the physical constitution of one who observes the other laws of the Torah.