The amida on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kipur reads, in part:

ובכן צדיקים יראו וישמחו… כי תעביר ממשלת זדון מן הארץ ותמלך אתה הוא ה׳ א׳ מהרה על כל מעשיך…‏

The most natural way to translate this, to my mind, would be:

So righteous people will see and be happy… when you pass the rulership of sin from the world and reign — you, God, our god — quickly over all your creations…

In other words, "ותמלך" is coordinating with "תעביר": the events spoken of in the first part of this passage ("צדיקים יראו וישמחו…‏") will occur when תעביר ממשלת זדון מן הארץ ותמלך…‏.

This makes sense to me especially because "תעביר ממשלת זדון מן הארץ" speaks of the release of one kind of rulership, and "תמלך אתה הוא ה׳ א׳" is the placement of another: they seem to coordinate very well.


  1. ArtScroll machzorim and the Kehot (Chabad) machzor don't translate it that way: their translations put "ותמלך" at the start of a new thought, coordinating not with "תעביר" but with the entire previous thought (so it's saying "צדיקים יראו וישמחו…‏ and also תמלך…‏").
  2. Every machzor I can lay my hands on puts "ותמלך" at the start of a new paragraph.

So my question is: Is there any source (more authoritative than the translations I cite above) that indicates what "ותמלך" coordinates with?


The Ramchal seems to be on your side (or at least close to it). In Maamar HaChochma, he writes:

אולם מדרגות רבות יש בישראל, כלן טובות, מקבילות להארות העליונות, פירוש - יש צדיקים, יש חסידים, יש ישרים, וכבר מנו בספר התקונים עשר מדרגות על דרך זה, ואמנם המבוקש הוא שכולם יהיו בשמחה, ברוב הארה והשפעה, וכנגד זה מדרגות הרשעה יכנעו ויתבטלו, וזהו "ובכן צדיקים" וכו' "ועולתה תקפץ פיה", והעיקר בהעביר עמלק מן העולם, כי היתה השבועה שאין ה' והכסא שלם עד שימחה, וזהו "כי תעביר ממשלת זדון" וכו'. והנה המצב הטוב שישאר בו העולם, הוא - שיהיו הברואים בכל ההכנה המצטרכת. ומלכותו ית' תהיה מתגלית עליהם תמיד

After explaining the idea that כי תעביר ממשלת זדון refers to the removal of Amalek from the world, he writes (bolded section) that the remaining situation will be that creation will be in its ideal state, and that Hashem's Kingship will be constantly revealed. Therefore, ותמלוך אתה is a consequence of כי תעביר ממשלת זדון מן הארץ.

  • 1
    If anything, this supports ArtScroll's approach, where the causative sequence is "all wickedness will evaporate" and then "and You shall reign alone over all Your Creation". In the msh210 approach, "when You reign over all Your Creation" is a cause of "and all wickedness shall evaporate". – Fred Jul 10 '15 at 1:22
  • +1 for alerting me to an on-point source, but I agree with @Fred. – msh210 Jul 10 '15 at 1:53
  • @msh210 maybe I am not appreciating what you meant, but I had thought that your contrast was between ותמלוך being a new paragraph unrelated to כי תעביר versus being the continuation of כי תעביר וכו. Ramchal is describing that כי תעביר and ותמלוך אתה are two halves of one point - wickedness will evaporate and Your rulership shall remain. Meaning, it is not "all wickedness will evaporate" and then "and You shall reign" (as Fred said) but rather "all wickedness will evaporate, leaving your reign" - it is the other half of the same point. (Please clarify if I misunderstood) – Y     e     z Jul 10 '15 at 3:27
  • I think you misunderstood. I was asking whether, 1, ותמלך is in parallel to תעביר and a continuation of כי so the whole reads "good people... will be happy... and evil will be gone... when {You remove willfully bad rule from the land and reign, Yourself...}" or, 2, ותמלך is in parallel to the entire preceding ~paragraph so the whole reads "good people... will be happy... and evil will be gone... when You remove willfully bad rule from the land; and You'll reign, Yourself...}". – msh210 Jul 10 '15 at 13:12
  • @msh210 I think I might see what you mean - you would still read this as being two separate statements, that the good people will be happy with the removal of bad, and additionally, You Hashem will rule. I was trying to demonstrate that removal of evil and Hashem's rule are being treated as two halves of one point and are therefore implicitly not separated into those two clauses. But would adding the Ramchal's next words, והם מקבלים מזה טובה אחר טובה עד אין תכלית, help to indicate that this is included in what the good people will be happy about? – Y     e     z Jul 12 '15 at 3:37

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