What are the differences between the "typical" navi's prophecy, Moshe Rabbeinu's prophecy, and Bil'am HaRasha's prophecy? (Answers with sources [and preferably links to sources] only please!)
- sees prophetic visions only in a dream state (Rambam, Hil. Yesodei Hatorah 7:2)
- becomes terrified and physically weak from the experience (ibid.)
- sees a metaphorical vision, from which he or she then deduces the actual meaning (ibid. 7:3). This is because their prophecy comes to them via an angel (ibid. 7:6) - or as the Gemara puts it (Yevamos 49b), "in an unclear mirror."
- has to prepare himself (or herself) for prophecy (ibid. 7:4), and therefore may lead a normal family life (ibid. 7:6).
Moshe Rabbeinu (ibid. 7:6):
- receives prophecy while in full control of his senses
- is able to converse with G-d without being overwhelmed, like someone talking with another person
- is told the actual content of the message directly by G-d - he "sees" Him as though "in a clear mirror"
- can receive prophecy at any time, and therefore must be permanently separated from his wife.
- was not really a navi at all, but a sorcerer (Josh. 13:22 thus calls him הקוסם). However, to honor the Jewish People, Hashem first appeared to him at night, then later via an angel, and finally during the daytime. All of this was only temporary, though, and afterwards he reverted to his former status. (Ramban to Num. 22:31; see also Sanhedrin 106a)
- even when he did receive prophecy, Hashem was (so to speak) "embarrassed" to do so, and therefore allowed it to happen only at night (Rashi to Num. 22:8). Further on, Hashem's appearances to him are depicted with the word ויקר, which suggests an "accidental," shameful, unclean experience. (Rashi to Num. 23:4)
- would fall to the ground from the intensity of the experience, because he was uncircumcised. (Rashi to Num. 24:4) (Rashi here may be disputing Rambam's statement, above, that this is true of all Jewish prophets too, except Moshe.)
HaShem has His prophets among other nations too. Here Bil'am is presented as an example. In Israel, the tipical prophet, if there is one among them, the Lord will make Himself known to him or her in a vision, and will speak to him or her in a dream. (Numb. 12:6) The only thing special about Moses in verse 7 and 8, is not that HaShem would speak to him mouth-to-mouth or face-to-face. The expression here is metaphorical for promoting Moses as the greatest of all the prophets. "Mouth-to-mouth" or "face-to-face" are not expressions to be said of G-d, Who is Incorporeal.