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According to this answer citing RaM"A (124:11), you can answer Amen to any Berachah even if you don't hear it, so long as you know which one is being said. Does this apply only to Tefillah BeTzibur (public prayer), or to all Berachoth?

If you notice someone mumbling a Berachah on an apple or a cookie, and you either hear part of the Berachah or you can just tell which Berachah is being said, or you notice someone intently saying a long Berachah after leaving the restroom, does the above rule from the RaM"A mean that you can answer Amen in these situations, even if you didn't actually hear the Berachah being said? Can a deaf person then also answer Amen to Berachoth and Tefillah BeTzibur?

If so, would it then follow that if you are in Shul and you hear someone conclude their Berachah (eg., "Yotzer Or"), that you have to respond Amen (assuming you are at a point in your own Davening in which you are allowed to respond generally to Berachoth)?

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I don't know about the deaf person, but in all the other cases you would be able to answer amen. This is because in all these cases you know what brocha is being said, it is not said to exempt the public from their obligation (e.g. חזרת הש"ץ), and you do not intend to exempt yourself from saying the brocha by answering amen. If any of these conditions do not exist, it would be subject to the מחלוקת discussed in Shulchan Aruch Harav (OC 124:11).

(credit: Menachem)

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