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Does anyone know the history of how "Useshuvah Usefillah Utzedakah maavirin es roah hagezeirah" was put into our Tefillah and/or who wrote it? (It's in the chazaras hashatz for musaf on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kipur).

  • Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/7423. – msh210 Sep 4 '12 at 6:59
  • wasn't it in the unetaneh tokef before it was in chazarat hashatz? – Charles Koppelman Sep 4 '12 at 14:23
  • I don't have the inside source, but according to an English language book on teshuva I'm reading, it says somewhere in the Bavli: "Four things will cause G-d to ma'akirin (tear up) the decree of judgment which has been issued against a person: acts of righteousness, fervent prayer, changing one's name and changing one's behavior." – Charles Koppelman Sep 4 '12 at 14:32
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Yerushalmi Taanis Perek 2 Halacha 1

אמר רבי לעזר: שלשה דברים מבטלין את הגזירה קשה ואילו הן: תפילה וצדקה ותשובה.

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    There still remains a question. Why did the composer, compose the words not in the order of the Yerushalmi? – Gershon Gold Sep 4 '12 at 13:56
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    and how did it turn from m'vatelin to maavirin? – Charles Koppelman Sep 4 '12 at 14:24
  • the same quote is in Bereshit Rabbah 44:12 which clearly came later based on the citation. – Charles Koppelman Sep 4 '12 at 16:25
  • @GershonGold - Perhaps because Tefilah and Tzedakah are both included within Teshuvah? – Adam Mosheh Sep 4 '12 at 18:38
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    I would like to propose that the order has to do with the time of the year. During Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur when it is a time of Teshuva, it first says Teshuva, and when Rabbi Lezer said this it was during a regular time where Tefila came first. – Gershon Gold Sep 4 '12 at 19:00

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