Judaism does not believe in the free will of angels. What is the scriptural evidence for that and since when has such belief been held within the Jewish community?
I believe the idea that angels do not have free will comes from a medieval understanding of what the gemora means that an angel can only have 1 task. (Mesechet Baba Metziah 86b)
There are numerous statements in midrash and gemora that an angel can only do one thing. They have one single mission. When angels appear to have more than one mission, Chazal discuss and find ways to explain it. (Mesechet Baba Metziah 86b)
The question arises then, if an angel can only have a single task, does that mean it has free will or not? This is a question addressed by the Rishonim, and is really more of a philosophy question regarding the nature of free will, than it is a theological question regarding the nature of angels.
When Moshe Rabeinu went up to receive the Torah, the angels wanted it for themselves, so Moshe replied to them "do you have a Yetzer Hora?". Thus we see that this has been known since the beginning Yidishkeit.
The source of Avodah Zorah actually comes from this misconception that Angels have free will, this led the generations before Noach to 'serve' them (so that they can get favors from them)
I can bring you a proof that some angels do have at least limited free will. At the time of the Churban when the Yidden were besieged, the Midrash (Yalkut Shimoni II:1023) tells us that the Yidden were not scared. they said to one another
we will call the names of the Angles like 'fire' and 'water' to come and save us. However Hashem arranged for them all to change names temporarily so when the Yidden screamed out to them they were not called.
This implies that had God not changed thier names they would have had free will to save them.
Another Medrash (Devarim Rabbah 1:17) says that when Titus was about to enter the Beis HaMikdash 600,000 demons were waiting to attack him. When they saw the Holy One did not interfere, they said we too will not then interfere. This too implies that they could have interfered had they wanted.
Lastly the Gemoro brings the story of 2 Malachim who saw Bnos Elokim who were extremely attractive earthly women and requested to be tested against them (to which they failed [the test]). This however, only shows that they could want thier own things, but not that they could carry them out. However, my first 2 proofs stand!
Perhaps there are different levels of angels with different levels of free will.
Judaism does not believe in the free will of angels.
This premise is incorrect. Some jewish sources may say this. But to say it unequivically is wrong. Some of the greatest jewish sages thought angels had free will. For example, the Rambam writes in Moreh Nevuchim 2:7
These passages show that angels are conscious of what they do, and have free will in the sphere of action intrusted to them, just as we have free will within our province, and in accordance with the power given to us with our very existence. (Friedlander Translation)