In Judaism there are a large array of books and texts which are considered authoritative. However not all authoritative books have equal authority, and some are well respected but are not 'binding' (i.e. are not authoritative).
It starts with the Chumash, or 5 books of Moshe.
Then, there are 19 other books which make up Nach. The 24 books together, make up Tanach, and is also known as "The written Torah."
Next up the food chain, is the "Oral Torah".
The Oral Torah is broken up into the Mishna, which has 63 books.
The Oral Torah also includes two Talmuds, one is known as the Talmud Bavli and the other the Talmud Yerushalmi. We have lost many books in these Talmuds and so not all sections of the Mishna are covered in each of the Talmuds.
The Talmud itself is made up of 4 types of texts. Mishna, Bereita, Tosefta, Gemora.
Bereita are texts written at the same time as the Mishna, but not included into the Mishna itself.
Tosefta are extra writings, that go along with the mishna, but were compiled separately.
We also have "Midrash" which are texts focused on wordplays, puns, associations, and linguistic connections and stories focused on the Tanach.
The Talmud is made up of two types of texts. Some are "Halachic" and are authoritative. Others are "Agadic" are inspirational, but not "binding" or "authoritative". Midrash is also divided into these two categories.
After the Talmud, we have the writings of the "Geonim" or "Great ones". Some of these writings are known as "Minor tractates" within the Talmud. This is also where we get our modern Prayer books from, and many the beginning of very clear yes/no answers to Halacha. (Jewish Law)
After the Geonim, are the writings of the Rishonim (First ones). Rishonim either wrote commentaries on the Talmud and tanach which allows us to expand upon what was written, connecting various parts of the Talmuds together and creating a more clear picture. They also began to organize the texts into categories instead of free form learning. Some Rishonim such as the Rambam, also wrote codified rules for all of Halacha.
The further in history you go, the more types of books you find, and the less and less authoritative the books become. However, some have become extremely authoritative in different circles. For example there is the Shulchan Aruch and/or Mishna Bruah which some argue is the final authority. Others state that only the Talmud and the rulings from the Sanhedrin can be the final authority, with more modern books giving great insight but are not 100% authoritative.
On the less rules and authority and more on the soul and inspiration, there are also the books of the Heichalot literature, Sepher Yetzirah, Baahir, and Zohar. These books heavily influenced Jewish prayer and ritual but their level of authority has waxed and waned depending on the community and era.
As was mentioned before there are many other books which have also entered the well established or respected writings. Anything written after the Geonic period may or may not be authoritative. I highly recommend clicking around in Wikipedia to get a clear understanding of just how vast the works are.
Even in Wikipedia there were many books which I found missing such as Path of the Righteous, Path of the Just, Duties of the Heart and other modern books which are taught in just about every highschool or Yeshiva today.
The process by which books become authoritative past the Geonic period is very democratic and organic. As a book becomes popular and widely quoted, it gains authority.