Although msh210's answer would appear to reflect the opinion of Mishnah Berurah which does not differentiate between kiddush at night or during the day, there are opinions that argue and would limit the permission to follow kiddush with cake instead of bread to only the daytime kiddush (at least ideally).
R. Shlomo Ganzfried, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 77:14:
וְאִם לֹא אָכַל מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ. וּבַיּוֹם אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד סְעוּדָּה קְבוּעָה, יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכוֹל קְצָת פַּת כִּיסָנִין, וְאָז צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִן הַכּוֹס רְבִיעִית.
And if one did not eat immediately after kiddush, he did not fulfill the mitzvah of kiddush. By day, even if he does not want to eat a formal meal immediately, he can recite the kiddush, and eat some cake, but then he must drink a revi'it [of wine] from the cup.
R. Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor, Ein Yitzchak 12:11:
לכתחלה יחוש להחמיר לאכול תיכף לחם אחר הקידוש של לילה אכן בקידוש היום יש להקל ולסמוך על מיני תרגימא או כוס יין שני
Ideally, one should be concerned for the stringent opinion and eat bread immediately following the nighttime kiddush. However, at the daytime kiddush, one can be lenient and rely on mezonot or a second cup of wine.
The reasoning behind this approach is summarized nicely in this article:
Although the Magen Avraham did not distinguish between the Friday Night and Shabbos Day Kiddush, and held that his ruling [i.e. that mezonot suffices for the meal following kiddush - JoelK] should apply equally, on the other hand, Rav Yitzchok Elchanan Spektor, the Kovno Rav and Gadol Hador of the late 1800s, did. He explained that on Shabbos Day, when Kiddush is only mandated derabbanan, one may certainly rely on Mezonos as a Seudah. Yet, on Friday night, when Kiddush is an actual chiyuv d’oraysa, due to the strength of the opposition to the Magen Avraham’s approach, he maintains that one should not rely on mere Mezonos, but should ensure that Kiddush is recited along with an entire bread-based Seudah.
This is why one does not often see a Friday night Kiddush being performed with Mezonos instead of Hamotzi.