There are a number of English language works which to one degree or another discuss Talmudic terminology, i.e. the wider implication of certain phrases commonly used in the Gemara. Can anybody suggest traditional works from which these are derived, in particular those which might be hiding in some of the "supplemental" material at the end of various mesechtos?
Here is an exhaustive (but not necessarily complete) list of earlier lexiconic sources for Talmud:
Sefer HaAruch, Rabbeinu Nasan Ben Yehiel,
K'lalei HaTalmud of Rav Yosef Karo,
K'lalei HaTalmud of Rav Betzalel Ashkenazi,
In the back of any Vilna Edition of Maseches B'rachos,
M'vo Hatalmud, (R' Shmuel HaNagid)
Sefas Chachamim by Aaron Yelinek, which is a dictionary of difficult Persian and Arabic words found in the Talmud and Midrashim.
K'lalei HaTalmud, of the K'neses HaG'dolah, Rav Chaim Benveniste. (Link not available yet.)
Yad Malachi (I just had a senior moment. Thank you WAF!)
(There is a new print available of Yad Malachi by Mishor
I have it and use it often. )
Another favorite of mine is Darkei Noam by R' Shlomo Di Oliveira,
It seems the original question wanted English books. I always like the Frank dictionary for that. But in the spirit of the other answers with Hebrew books, I would recommend Otzer HaTalmud, or Encyclopedia Talmudit
halichos olam, the shelah, sdei hemed
מההרי נמרים לרבנו עמנואל הספרדי
כללי הגמרא להרדב”ז
דרכ’ התלמוד לרבינו יצחק קנפנטון
Try Yad Mal'achi (see here).