Do you say Boruch Shepatrani for a girl at her Bas Mitzva? If not, why not?
The Yalkut Yosef says that it depends on the reason for saying the blessing:
We say it because the boy will no longer be punished for the father's sins (and [underage] girls are punished the same way [underage] boys are).
We say it because the father will no longer be punished for the boys sins (as he is no longer responsible to educate him). (And one is not obligated to educate girls to the same way as boys).
I don't remember his final conclusion, but (at least in the Chabad world), I have never heard of it being said by a bas-mitzva.
There are many poskim with answers to this question. Note that there are various opinions as to why we say this bracha in the first place, so not every posek uses the same assumptions in order to draw their conclusions. Here are a few of the major opinions:
- Rabbi Jacob Chagiz, (17th century, Morocco, Italy, Israel) - Say it for a girl. He follows the reasoning that since both sons and daughters are liable for the sins of their father, both would obligate the father to say the bracha upon reaching the age of majority. It may be interesting to note that this is the first source I could find that addressed the issue directly.
- Rabbi Davd Luria (19th century) - Only say it for a boy. His reasoning is that because the source of the bracha is a midrash in Bereshit Rabbah that mentions sons only, it is only said for sons.
- Kaf HaChayim (19-20 century, Baghdad)- Only said for sons because daughters continue to be "nourished by their father's houses" until their wedding.
- Chaim David HaLevy (20th century, Israel) - We only say for sons. His reasoning is that the bracha is because the father is required to teach his son torah. Since there isn't as much of an obligation to teach Torah to daughters, we don't say a blessing for them.
- Yitzchak Nissim (20th century, Sephardi chief rabbi of Israel) - He says to say it for a daughter, and even provides a new nusach for the bracha with female pronouns (ברוך שפטרני מעונשה של זאת). His reasoning is that it's because a daughter also requires education and is punished for her father's sins.
- Ovadia Yosef (20th century, Chief Sephardi Rabbi of Israel) - Say it for a daughter. He also provides a new nusach using feminine pronouns. He analyzes the issue from two perspectives, one that we bless because the child is punished for the sins of the father, and one that the father is punished for the actions of the child. Either way, he believes it applies to a daughter as well.
- Yona Metzger (20-21 century, Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Israel) - Only say it for sons. His reasoning is that sons require education but daughters don't.
The Peri Megadim (O.C. 225:5) asks why one does not say this blessing for a girl, and explains that if you assume that the reason for saying it for a boy is that the father is punished for not educating his son, this would be inapplicable by a girl. However, he notes that according to the Levush's explanation that the son gets punished for the father's sins, there should be no difference between a boy and a girl:
והנה למה לא יברך בנקיבה י"ב שנים וב' שערות לפירוש הלבוש דבנים קטנים נענשים בשביל אב לא שנא זכרים ונקיבות ולמאן דאמר חינוך י"ל דאין מחויב לחנך בתו קטנה עיין מ"א [סימן] (שמ"א) [שמג] [ס"ק] א' גם למאן דאמר מחויב אין בה כל כך מצות שמחויב לחנכה בקטנותה ואם משיאה לאיש בקטנותה קנין אישה הוית ואין נענשת בשביל אביה
Note, though, that he doesn't conclude that (according to this reason) one should say it for a girl; he merely wonders why we don't.
For a collection of acharonim who discuss this question, see Shu"t Tziyun L'nefesh Chayah # 55.