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In the Shemoneh Esrei and the nighttime Kiddush for Yom Tov (Nusach Ashkenaz), we say (additions for Shabbos in square brackets and italics):

ותתן לנו ה' אלקנו באהבה [שבתות למנוחה ו] מועדים לשמחה חגים וזמנים לששון את יום חג ... הזה זמן ... [באהבה] מקרא קדש וכו׳

Why do we need another באהבה for Shabbos when we already had one earlier in the same sentence?

See the Siddur Rinas Yisroel for example pages 367 (kiddush) and 376 (mussaf).

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The first "באהבה" refers to G-d's love, the second one refers to our love.

According to the Levush (brought here), we add the 2nd "באהבה" on Shabbos, since we willingly, lovingly accepted Shabbos at Marah, before Matan Torah. The holidays were given to us at Sinai, where the Talmud tells us we were coerced into accepting the Torah.

G-d's love , on the other hand, was always there, both when he gave us the commandments at Marah and at Matan Torah.

There is a letter from the Lubavitcher Rebbe that further elaborates on this, but I don't know where it is offhand.

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