What are the halachic concerns surrounding vasectomies? Are vasectomies permitted by halacha under any circumstances?
The issues that I could see as possibly being connected would be chavala (prohibition against inflicting harm to self or others), lo titgodedu and possibly even shmiras habris. On the other side, a vasectomy could be psychologically beneficial to a wife who has trouble with birth control, and could potentially help ensure shalom bayis.
From this question on plastic surgery, which I believe is somewhat related: "This is one of the major concerns voiced by Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg, author of Tzitz Eliezer, a multivolume set of responsa, much of which deals with medical issues. First, Rabbi Waldenberg29 objects to performing surgery on someone who is neither sick nor in pain. 30 He argues that such activities are outside the boundaries of the physician's mandate to heal (since he questions whether cosmetic surgery is truly included in the category of healing). He further asserts that the patient has no right to ask the physician to wound him or her for the purposes of merely enhancing beauty. Rabbi Waldenberg then makes the theological argument that as the ultimate artisan, God creates each person in His image, exactly as he or she should be, with nothing extra nor anything lacking. He therefore posits that cosmetic surgery that is not for pain or true illness is an affront to God and is forbidden."