The Baal Shem Tov was the founder of the Hasidic Movement, Rabbi Israel Salanter was the founder of the Musar Movement, and Theodor Herzl was the founder of the Zionist Movement.
What are other contemporary Jewish movements, and who are their founders? Please do not movements are not considered to be part of the mainstream, such as Samaritans, Christians, Karaites, et al. Ideally, it would be nice if the answer could just become a community wiki and everybody could contribute together. Thanks to all!