Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has 3 (in my opinion excellent) books on the history, importance, and benefit of Jewish meditation. Yet meditation does not seem to be an integral component for much (though, certainly not all) of orthodox Judaism. It is not taught in schools, not discussed by most rabbanim from the pulpit, and is generally absent from the lives of many Jews. Why is that?
Chassidim have been "meditating" for the past 230 years. Before that meditation was limited to those well versed in Kabbalah. Chabad Chassidus alone has literally thousands of pages on how to meditate and what to meditate on.
Outside of Chabad and Breslov Chassidus and Sephardi Mekubalim, meditation isn't popular because to be successful you need to spend almost 2 hours minimum of prayer which the average Torah observant Jew does not feel they have adequate time to achieve.
Likkutei Amarim by the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch. Published 1797 (215 years ago, prior to that it was given out in pamphlets)
 http://www.kehot.com Seforim information. Lubavitcher Rebbe alone has over 62 volumes of published works
 Kuntres HaTefillah by the Rebbe Rashab of Lubavitch discusses prayer and preparation (medidation) prior
 In the last chapter of Likkutei Amarim the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch says that a person should spend 1.5 hours involved with Shachris (the actual prayer and the preparation)
How do you define Meditation?
Hitbodedut (AFAIR R' Kaplan wrote that it involves isolating oneself and trying to communicate with Hashem) is a Breslover meditation emphasized by R' Nachman of Berslov and is still in common use nowadays by Bresloves
Hisbonnenus (the act of learning Chassidus and intently contemplating on it during Davening) is still practiced by many Chassidim. (Come to a Chabad Yeshiva on Shabbos after Davening, you will often find Bochurim and Mashpiyim Davening for hours). It's also heavily discussed in Chabad literature.
In the general non-Chassidic world (and in some Chassidic circles), they don't believe in long "Avodas Hatfilla" and try to hurry through Davening.
The Arizal (quoted in Biur Halacha O"H 571) says to do one day a week what Breslov calls today "Hitbodedut".