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If one did not make Kidush by night, can he drink water the next morning before Shacharis without making Kidush first?

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Do not base any halachic decisions based on this, consult your LOR

I recently saw this Halacha from Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli Mansour (June 18, 2024) that answers your question

Both men and women are obligated to recite (or hear) Kiddush on Friday night. If a person, for whatever reason, did not recite Kiddush on Friday night, then he must recite it on Shabbat morning. This means that instead of reciting the brief Shabbat morning Kiddush, he must recite the Kiddush text that is normally recited on Friday night. Thus, if a person was ill, Heaven forbid, or if he fell asleep before reciting Kiddush or simply forgot to recite Kiddush, he must recite the Friday night Kiddush after Shaharit on Shabbat morning.

In such a case, when a person did not recite Kiddush on Friday night and must therefore do so on Shabbat morning, is he allowed to drink before Shaharit that morning?

Generally speaking, although it is forbidden to eat before reciting Shaharit in the morning (both on Shabbat and on weekdays), it is permissible to drink water, tea or coffee before Shaharit. This is allowed even on Shabbat morning, despite the fact that one may not drink before reciting Kiddush, because the Kiddush obligation sets in only after one recites Shaharit. The Sages enacted the recitation of Kiddush on Shabbat morning specifically for after the Shaharit service, and therefore the prohibition against eating and drinking before Kiddush does not apply until after Shaharit. Before Shaharit, one is bound only by the restrictions that apply to eating and drinking before praying in the morning, and thus one may drink water, tea or coffee before Shaharit on Shabbat morning, just as he may on weekday mornings.

However, in a case where one missed Kiddush on Friday night, he already bears the previous night's obligation to recite Kiddush, and thus, seemingly, he is not allowed to drink anything on Shabbat morning until he recites Kiddush. This is, indeed, the ruling of Rav Shlomo Kluger (1789-1869), in his work Ha'elef Lecha Shelomo (OC 121).

במ"ש בש"ע סי' ר"צ סעיף א' ומיהו לשתות מים קודם קידוש מותר שעדיין לא חל עליו חובת קידוש נראה דהיינו דוקא אם עשה קידוש בלילה כדין אבל אם לא עשה קידוש בלילה בענין דמחויב לקדש ביום קידוש של לילה כמ"ש לעיל סי' רע"א אז אסור אף לשתות מים קודם תפלה כיון דחל עליו חובת קידוש של לילה ואף שלא התפלל דבשלמא קידוש של יום שעדיין לא חל עליו ואנו רוצים שיחול כעת בזה אנו אומרים קודם תפלה עדיין לא חל עליו חובת קידוש אבל אם כבר חל בלילה החוב עליו כיון שחל שוב לא פקע אף קודם תפלה ואסור לשתות אף בבוקר אף מים וז"ב:

Hacham Ovadia Yosef, however, disagrees, and rules that one may drink water, tea or coffee before Shaharit on Shabbat morning even if he had not recited Kiddush the previous night. This ruling is also brought down in more detail in Yalkut Yosef Siman 271 Halacha 23. There is a Halachic rule called "En Kiddush Ela Be'makom Se'uda," which means that one fulfills the obligation of Kiddush only if he recites Kiddush in the context of a meal. Before Shaharit, Halacha forbids eating a meal, and it is therefore impossible to fulfill the Kiddush obligation on Shabbat morning until after one prays Shaharit. Thus, even if one bears the previous night's obligation of Kiddush, nevertheless, since he is incapable of fulfilling this obligation until after he recites Shaharit, it is permissible for him to drink before reciting Shaharit. In all cases, then, one may drink water, tea or coffee before Shaharit on Shabbat morning.

Summary: One who did not, for whatever reason, recite Kiddush on Friday night must recite the Friday night Kiddush after Shaharit on Shabbat morning. One is allowed to drink water, tea or coffee before Shaharit on Shabbat morning, even if he did not recite Kiddush on Friday night according to Rabbi Ovadia Yosef. Rav Shlomo Kluger disagrees and rules that one is not allowed to drink.

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  • If R Ovadia's logic worked, we wouldn't need the reason of "morning kiddush didn't start yet" in order to allow water in the morning. And yet, that's the reason the Rosh gave for allowing water and the Raavyah disagreed and forbade even water: Tur 89 וכתב אבי העזרי שמותר לשתות מים, דלא שייך בהו גאוה. ודוקא בחול, אבל בשבת ויום טוב כתב דאסור משום הקידוש. ואדוני אבי ז"ל היה שותה מים בשבת בבוקר קודם תפילה, שאין הקידוש אוסרו, כיון שעדיין לא הגיע זמנו. and again later Tur 289 שכיון שלא חל עליו עדיין חובת קידוש עד לאחר התפלה אינו אוסרו מלטעום
    – Double AA
    Commented Jul 1 at 17:46
  • It’s a much stronger argument to say that Kiddish didn’t start yet as opposed to saying that you can only drink because of the rule of Ein Kiddish Ela Bemakom Seuda. It seems to me that that’s the reason the Rosh used the reasoning that Kidush didn’t start yet and R. Ovadia mentions the rule of bemakom seuda here because you are obligated in Kiddush from last night. Commented Jul 1 at 20:25
  • What do you mean stronger? The Makom Seuda argument is stronger because it covers more cases (such as someone who is obligated in kiddush from last night). Also the Raavyah clearly holds a kiddush obligation does prohibit drinking water, so minimization of machloket implies Rosh doesn't argue with Raavyah twice (is there kiddush obligation, and does kiddush obligation prohibit water).
    – Double AA
    Commented Jul 1 at 20:32
  • Let us continue this discussion in chat. Commented Jul 1 at 21:03

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