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BH

I know it says ve Al mezuzot beitecha uvesharecha it should be on your mezuzot and on your gates. Are "a house and gates" all that is required for mezuzot?

What about things like pillars inside an apartment or a square like poles shapes?

Where does it say exactly how to determine what really needs a mezuzah or not?

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  • מְזוּזָה means doorpost in Hebrew. The pasuk in Devarim 11:20, where these halachot are derived from regarding this mitzva, is correctly translated as: And you shall write them [these words] on the doorposts (מזוזות) of your house and on your gates.
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Commented May 24 at 8:49

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R Yirmiyohu Kaganoff provides the rules of what "door/entrance" needs a mezuza (here)

I am quoting extracts but it is important to see the full text for the details, reasoning and halachic sources.

The Rambam establishes ten rules that must be met to require a mezuzah, of which the following three issues are germane to answer the above questions.

  • Is there a lintel?
  • Are there sideposts?
  • Is there a door?

Lintel

According to all halachic authorities, a doorway does not require a mezuzah unless there is a mashkof, a lintel that comes down from the ceiling to form the appearance of a doorway. [...] It is adequate if the mashkof, or lintel, merely provides an aesthetic function of giving the entrance the appearance of a doorway. However, when there is no mashkof at all, that is, nothing comes down vertically to give the appearance of a lintel, there is no requirement to install a mezuzah, even when there are two proper sideposts and even when there is a door.

Sidepost

[...] The Rosh (Hilchos Mezuzah #14) explains that the case is where one entire wall of the room or house is missing, and thus the entranceway is created by the wall ending, rather than the existence of an actual door. This is exactly what we find in modern construction, where the entrances to kitchens, dining rooms, living rooms, dens, and hallways are often created without a proper entranceway, but simply by a wall.

[...]

The Rambam concludes like the Sages and therefore in his opinion one needs a mezuzah only when there are two sideposts. This is how the Shulchan Aruch concludes. According to this approach, there is no requirement to place a mezuzah unless the entrance has two sideposts.

Door

In this instance, the Rambam’s position is a minority opinion, since most other Rishonim contend that the lack of a door does not absolve the requirement of a mezuzah. The accepted conclusion is to install a mezuzah in a doorway that has no door, but not to recite a beracha when doing so out of deference to the Rambam.

As @DoubleAA mentioned in comments, these are about the form of the doorway, but two other common considerations to be aware of is if the room is big enough (4*4cubits) and if it is used for proper dwelling purposes (not bathroom, possibly not storage room).

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  • Note the Gra rules like the Rosh (against the shulchan aruch) so in the case of one doorpost on the right side some are strict to attach a mezuzah without a blessing
    – Double AA
    Commented May 24 at 11:32
  • These are about the form of the doorway, but two other common considerations to be aware of is if the room is big enough (4*4cubits) and if it is used for proper dwelling purposes (not bathroom, possibly not storage room)
    – Double AA
    Commented May 24 at 11:34
  • @DoubleAA you are absolutely right - I believe the question was about the requirement of a "door" - but for the avoidance of doubt will edit what you wrote. Re storage room we have the question and I will link it
    – mbloch
    Commented May 24 at 12:44

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