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אֵין מוֹצִיאִין לֹא אֶת הַקָּטָן וְלֹא אֶת הַלּוּלָב וְלֹא אֶת סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין:

Beit Shammai say: One may carry out on a Festival neither a minor child, nor a lulav, nor a Torah Scroll into the public domain, as none of these are required for the preparation of food; and Beit Hillel permit it.

Mishnah Beitzah 1:5

According to Beit Shammai, one is not allowed to carry general items on Yom Tov, not even a lulav.

On the other hand, the whole mitzvah of waving the lulav is cancelled by the rabbis if it falls on Shabbos because one might come to carry it in the public domain (see Mishna Sukkah 4:2).

If it is indeed forbidden to carry a lulav, even on Yom Tov, then how would Beit Shammai understand this gezeira? Did he apply it on Yom Tov too?

Is it necessary to assume that the whole gezeira was introduced after halacha was decided like Beit Hillel?

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Bet Shammai’s view in Mishnah Beitzah 1:5 is not that carrying in reshut harabbim (public domain) is prohibited on Yom Tov but that it is permitted only where the person carries in connection with eating. Carrying a lulav is not done for eating and therefore it is prohibited. The view of Bet Hillel is that since carrying is permitted for food, it is also permitted in other cases.

Mishnah Succah 4:2 refers to a different issue: not taking the lulav on Shabbat unless it is the first day of Succot, when taking arbah minim is a biblical obligation. Since Succah 4:2 envisages carrying a lulav on Yom Tov and based on Beitzah 1:5 Bet Shammai does not permit carrying a lulav in reshut harabbim on Yom Tov, Succah 4:2 must be according to the view of Bet Hillel since according to Bet Shammai's view, the issue would not arise.

Bet Shammai does not permit the carrying of a lulav in reshut harabim, as @Double AA points out in his comment, so the logical extension of Bet Shammai’s view as applied to Succah 4:2 would be to prohibit taking the lulav on Yom Tov lest one carries it. Accordingly it appears that the OP is correct and it would seem that the gezeira was introduced after carrying on Yom Tov was permitted in accordance with the view of Beit Hillel

For the sake of completeness, I should add that we no longer take the arbah minim on Shabbat, even on the first day of Succot – see Why ban Lulav on Shabbos in places with eruvin? and the article cited in that post https://lifeinisrael.blogspot.com/2009/10/not-shaking-lulav-on-shabbat.html

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  • I don't understand how this answers the question
    – Double AA
    Commented May 21 at 14:32
  • I think there is the kernel of an answer here, in that the original gezerah was never against lulav on first day yom tov, whether that was shabbat or not. The gezeirah was only on shabbat chol hamoed. @DoubleAA
    – Joel K
    Commented May 21 at 14:47
  • @JoelK Yes there is known historical development there which we could try to date later than Beit Shamai, but the question still stands for shofar.
    – Double AA
    Commented May 21 at 14:49
  • @DoubleAA Thank you for your comments which have clarified in my mind the OP's intended meaning. I have amended my answer accordingly.
    – Edward B
    Commented May 21 at 14:51
  • @DoubleAA Thank you again. I have further edited my answer.
    – Edward B
    Commented May 21 at 15:11

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