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In talking about Pessaḥ, the Torah says that Shavuot begins seven complete weeks from “the day after Shabbat”. [Leviticus 23:15-16]

Which Shabbat? Unspecified. The Sadducees said it’s the Shabbat within the week of Pessaḥ. The Pharisees said it’s the first day of Pessaḥ, interpreted as a Shabbat (a day of rest, which it is also). They prevailed. [Menaḥot 65b]

Are there other instances in the Sources where a holiday is referred to as “Shabbat”? Why is it done?

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Yom Kippur is called שבת שבתון in Vayikra 16:31, this is a term used for regular Shabbos in Shemos 35:2.

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Rosh Hashanah is called "shabbaton" in Vayikra 23:24

דּבּר אל־בּני ישׂראל לאמר בּחדשׁ השּׁביעי בּאחד לחדשׁ יהיה לכם שׁבּתון זכרון תּרוּעה מקרא־קדשׁ׃

Following on from the earlier answer of @user6591 - Vayikra 23:32 also refers to Yom Kippur as "shabbat shabbaton" and the same verse uses the term "your shabbat" to refer to Yom Kippur

שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב מֵעֶרֶב עַד־עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם

Vayikra 23:39 refers to the first and last days of Succot as "shabbaton"

אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שַׁבָּתוֹן וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי שַׁבָּתוֹן**׃

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