It is unclear for me if my enemies are or not included in the concept of neighbor regarding the following mitzva:

Leviticus 19:18

Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the Lord.

When I say "enemy", I am specifically referring to the type of enemy referred to in this pasuk:

Exodus 23:4-5

When you encounter your enemy’s ox or ass wandering, you must take it back. When you see the ass of your enemy lying under its burden and would refrain from raising it, you must nevertheless help raise it.

  • 3
    "Neighbor" is not a great translation. It's more like "fellow."
    – shmosel
    Apr 2 at 0:12
  • 1
    You are not supposed to have enemies - there's a Mitzva to love every fellow Jew. There are rare exceptions when you are allowed to have an enemy, and then most (all?) commandments relating to "neighbor/fellow Jew" do not apply. (No time to get sources to write an answer) Apr 2 at 9:49
  • 1
    By "enemies" do you mean national enemies (i.e. a collective enemy), or a personal enemy (i.e. a person with whom we otherwise share fraternal kinship)? Apr 2 at 17:30
  • @DannySchoemann Then how should one fulfill בנפול אויבך אל תשמח?
    – shmosel
    Apr 4 at 22:21


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