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There were two sets of tablets. The text of the first set is recorded in Exodus 20. The Second set is in Deuteronomy 5. The first set states:

זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

The second set states:

Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord your God commanded you. שָׁמ֛וֹר אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת לְקַדְּשׁ֑וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:

Rashi (Exodus 20:8) brings Chazal who posit -

זָכוֹר וְשָׁמוֹר בְּדִבּוּר אֶחָד נֶאֶמְרוּ Zachor and Shamor were uttered together.

The Mizrachi explains:

מזרחי (רא"ם) שמות פרק כ פסוק ח (פרשת יתרו) דאם לא כן יהיו הדברות הראשונות מתחלפות מהאחרונות, ואי אפשר זה, for if this was not the case (that they were uttered together), the sets of tablets would not be the same! This is impossible.

But, if they were said together, why were they not written together?

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    You're assuming that Exodus reflects the written text of the first tablets, and Deuteronomy the written text of the second. What is this assumption based on?
    – Joel K
    Mar 31 at 11:20
  • @ Joel K. The Mizrachi assumes this. I suppose that since we know there were two sets of tablets and know that we have two different texts, it is safe to assume that each text reflects a different set.
    – GratefulD
    Mar 31 at 11:28
  • If you’re referring to the Mizrachi on Exodus 20:8, then I think you might be reading your assumptions into his words. I don’t see him discussing the texts of the tablets themselves, rather the dual report of the words (דברות) heard at Sinai.
    – Joel K
    Mar 31 at 11:44
  • @Joel K. Hard to say either way. See a suggested answer in Gur Aryeh - he accepts the fact that there were two sets of texts. sefaria.org/Gur_Aryeh_on_Devarim.5.12.1?lang=bi and so for example the Gur Aryeh writes: :אבל בדברות האחרונות שכתב "שמור יום השבת לקדשו",
    – GratefulD
    Mar 31 at 11:52
  • Those are the texts as written in the Torah. What's your basis for associating them with each set of luchos?
    – shmosel
    Mar 31 at 22:11

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