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According to Halacha, is the daily recitation of Tamid considered obligatory, or merely a strong minhag? If it is an obligatory recitation, are women also obligated to recite it or no?

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Are women obligated in Parshas Hatamid?

Magen Avraham (47:14) quotes the ruling of the Agur that women are obligated in the daily recital of the sacrifices - cited specifically in reference to the Tamid by Shulchan Aruch Harav (47:10). [This position assumes that women are obligated in general tefillah, which is beyond the scope of this answer].

This is also the position of Maharil (Hachadashos, Siman 45:2), who writes that just like women are obligated in Shacharis which was instituted instead of the Korban Tamid, they are also obligated in recital of Parshas Hatamid which was instituted for the same reason.

דרבנן תקנו פרשת וידבר ה' אל משה נגד התמיד כדאמר מר כל העוסק בפרשת עולה וכו' ואטו מי לא מחייבי בתמיד וקרבנות כמו אנשים, הא חייבות בתפילות וכנגד תמידין תקנו וא"כ מחייבי נמי לסדר ענייני קרבנות קראי ושמא נמי מתניתין דאיזהו מקומן

The position of Agur is cited by Biur Halacha (Siman 47, dh Nashim).

However, the assumption that women are obligated in Parshas Tamid like Shmoine Esrei is debatable.

  • The Gemara (Berachos 26a) writes that women are obligated in prayer because 'נשי מי לא בעי רחמי'. Some Poskim (see Tzlach ad loc) infer that women would not be obligated in prayer which doesn't constitute 'rachamim', like Mussaf.
  • Others point out that women had no chelek in communal sacrifices (see Shekalim 1:3), and therefore would not be obligated in institutions replacing the Tamid. [See Tehillah ldavid (47:9), R' Yaacov Emden (Mor Ketziah 48) see also R' Akiva Eiger (Siman 9)]

Other arguments are mentioned in the Poskim contrary to the Maharil and Agur:

  • Chikrei Lev (OC 10) argues that although women are obligated in tefillah, they are not obligated in Parshas Hatamid which is a form of talmud torah.
  • Pri Megadim (AA 47:14) suggests that the verse 'דבר אל בני ישראל' implies that it was said to Bnei Yisrael, not Bnos Yisrael.

Mechzeh Eliyahu (Vol 1, Siman 14) makes the above arguments, and adds that the position of Maharil and Agur is based on the ruling of Ramban that women are obligated in Shemoine Esrei; however, according to Rambam, women are not even obligated in that. Even those who are generally stringent for the Ramban can add the Rambam as a tziruf.

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  • Note it's not the rambam himself who is the snif just a position that agrees with the rambam that ikar tefillah deoraysa. Rambam himself (6:10) held women are obligated in the rabbinic prayer form anyway.
    – Double AA
    Mar 24 at 4:57

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