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According to Deuteronomy 24:5 a man is exempt from public service for a year when he marries a wife. What does Halacha say in the case a man marries a woman and divorced her or she dies before that year, is he still exempt or no?

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The verse clearly states

כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִישׁ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה לֹ֤א יֵצֵא֙ בַּצָּבָ֔א וְלֹא־יַעֲבֹ֥ר עָלָ֖יו לְכׇל־דָּבָ֑ר נָקִ֞י יִהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵיתוֹ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְשִׂמַּ֖ח אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־לָקָֽח׃‏

I.e. that he is to remain homebound to make his wife happy. If he's not married to her anymore, then he would lose his exemption.

Rashi also hints to this by saying that it's for the purpose of his wife:

נקי יהיה לביתו. פירש"י בשביל ביתו

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