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According to Halacha, is it prohibited or permissible to do animal euthanasia on sick or injured animals? Or would it be prohibited as a violation of Tzaar Balei Chayim?

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It is permissible.

aish.com writes here

We are permitted to put an animal to sleep to avoid its suffering. The reason is because the Torah requires us to alleviate the pain of animals (based on the verse obligating us to help our fellow unload his overladen donkey (Exodus 23:5)). On the other hand, we are allowed to kill animals when we have a good reason – such as for their meat or if they are threatening us. Putting the two points together, we are allowed to euthanize an animal for the good justification of minimizing its pain. (See Rema E.H 5:14, Noda BiYehuda 2 Y.D. 10, Techumim X p. 258.)

ohr.edu adds

I asked Rabbi Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg, shlita, about the ruling in this case, and he told me that it would be Halachically permissible to put an animal to sleep since it is a painless procedure. However, there is a Kabbalistic tradition, he notes, that forbids the ending of any life.

See also here.

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