When moving to a new community, one should adopt the community's minhag, but when traveling to a different community, one should continue following the minhag of their ancestors. Halachically, what differentiates “travelling” from “moving”?

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You can find that Halacha in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 468:4 and the commentaries there. In short, the halacha follows the common meaning of “moving“, i.e. your intention is to move there permanently. But if your intention is to return you are still a “traveler”.

The most common contemporary application of this halacha (according to most poskim) is travelers between Eretz Yisrael and the diaspora, with regard to keeping one day of Yom Tov as they do in Eretz Yisrael, or two days of Yom Tov as they do in the diaspora.

Much has been written about this, and you can find the finer details of the the distinction between “traveling” and “moving” in those discussions.

For example, there are Yeshiva students who have been learning for many years in Eretz Yisrael, but still keep two days of Yom Tov because they intend eventually to return to the diaspora.

  • Bingo. Just to add ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein has several responsa about this where he highlights an economic component as well. An American yeshiva kid who says I'm staying in an Israeli yeshiva forever! but has to call Mom & Dad in Brooklyn for more money every month ... is arguably a "traveler." There's a sad one of an Israeli dad who's come to the US for an extended period (leaving the wife and other kids behind in Israel) with a child who needs prolonged medical treatment in the US. If the dad has no job in the US, or odd jobs here and there, he's still a "visitor."
    – Shalom
    Commented Mar 1 at 16:37

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