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Would everyone (Jew and gentile alike) benefit by following these commanments?

  1. To know there is a G‑d—Exodus 20:2

  2. Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him—Exodus 20:3

  3. To know that He is one—Deuteronomy 6:4

  4. To love Him—Deuteronomy 6:5

  5. To fear Him—Deuteronomy 10:20

  6. To sanctify His Name—Leviticus 22:32

  7. Not to profane His Name—Leviticus 22:32

  8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name—Deuteronomy 12:4

  9. To emulate His ways—Deuteronomy 28:9

  10. To cleave to those who know Him—Deuteronomy 10:20

  11. To love other Jews—Leviticus 19:18

  12. To love converts—Deuteronomy 10:19

  13. Not to hate fellow Jews—Leviticus 19:17

  14. To reprove wrongdoers—Leviticus 19:17

  15. Not to embarrass others—Leviticus 19:17

  16. Not to oppress the weak—Exodus 22:21

  17. Not to gossip about others—Leviticus 19:16

  18. Not to take revenge—Leviticus 19:18

  19. Not to bear a grudge—Leviticus 19:18

  20. To learn Torah and teach it. (Strictly Tanak and mussar for gentiles) Deuteronomy 6:7

  21. To honor those who teach and know Torah—Leviticus 19:32

  22. Not to inquire into idolatry—Leviticus 19:4

  23. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see—Numbers 15:39

  24. Not to blaspheme—Exodus 22:27

  25. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped—Exodus 20:5

  26. Not to bow down to idols—Exodus 20:5

  27. Not to make an idol for yourself—Exodus 20:4

  28. Not to make an idol for others—Leviticus 19:4

  29. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes—Exodus 20:20

  30. Not to turn a city to idolatry—Exodus 23:13

  31. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship—Deuteronomy 13:17

  32. Not to rebuild it as a city—Deuteronomy 13:17

  33. Not to derive benefit from it—Deuteronomy 13:18

  34. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship—Deuteronomy 13:12

  35. Not to love the missionary—Deuteronomy 13:9

  36. Not to cease hating the missionary—Deuteronomy 13:9

  37. Not to save the missionary—Deuteronomy 13:9

  38. Not to say anything in his defense—Deuteronomy 13:9

  39. Not to refrain from incriminating him—Deuteronomy 13:9

  40. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry—Deuteronomy 18:20

  41. Not to listen to a false prophet—Deuteronomy 13:4

  42. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of G‑d—Deuteronomy 18:20

  43. Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet—Deuteronomy 18:22

  44. Not to swear in the name of an idol—Exodus 23:13

  45. Not to perform Ov (medium)--Leviticus 19:31

  46. Not to perform Yidoni (magical seer)--Leviticus 19:31

  47. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech—Leviticus 18:21

  48. Not to erect a column in a public place of worship—Deuteronomy 16:22

  49. Not to bow down on smooth stone—Leviticus 26:1

  50. To destroy idols and their accessories—Deuteronomy 12:2

  51. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories—Deuteronomy 7:26

  52. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols—Deuteronomy 7:25

  53. Not to make a covenant with idolaters—Deuteronomy 7:2

  54. Not to show favor to them—Deuteronomy 7:2

  55. Not to let them dwell in our land—Exodus 23:33

  56. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing—Leviticus 20:23

  57. Not to be superstitious—Leviticus 19:26

  58. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc.--Deuteronomy 18:10

  59. Not to engage in astrology—Leviticus 19:26

  60. Not to mutter incantations—Deuteronomy 18:11

  61. Not to attempt to engage the dead in conversation—Deuteronomy 18:11

  62. Not to consult the Ov—Deuteronomy 18:11

  63. Not to consult the Yidoni—Deuteronomy 18:11

  64. Not to perform acts of magic—Deuteronomy 18:10

  65. Men must not wear women's clothing—Deuteronomy 22:5

  66. Women must not wear men's clothing—Deuteronomy 22:5

  67. Not to tattoo the skin—Leviticus 19:28

  68. Not to tear the skin in mourning—Deuteronomy 14:1

  69. Not to make a bald spot in mourning—Deuteronomy 14:1

  70. To repent and confess wrongdoings—Numbers 5:7

  71. To serve the Almighty with prayer daily—Exodus 23:25

  72. To bless the Almighty after eating—Deuteronomy 8:10

  73. To rest on the seventh day—Exodus 23:12

  74. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat—Exodus 35:3

  75. To afflict and cry out before G‑d in times of catastrophe—Numbers 10:9

  76. Not to have relations with women not thus married—Deuteronomy 23:18

  77. Not to withhold food, clothing, and sexual relations from your wife—Exodus 21:10

  78. To have children with one's wife—Genesis 1:28

  79. To fulfill the laws of the woman suspected of adultery (Sotah)--Numbers 5:30

  80. Not to have sexual relations with your mother—Leviticus 18:7

  81. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wife—Leviticus 18:8

  82. Not to have sexual relations with your sister—Leviticus 18:9

  83. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wife's daughter (from your father)--Leviticus 18:11

  84. Not to have sexual relations with your son's daughter—Leviticus 18:10

  85. Not to have sexual relations with your daughter—Leviticus 18:10

  86. Not to have sexual relations with your daughter's daughter—Leviticus 18:10

  87. Not to marry a woman and her daughter—Leviticus 18:17

  88. Not to marry a woman and her son's daughter—Leviticus 18:17

  89. Not to marry a woman and her daughter's daughter—Leviticus 18:17

  90. Not to have sexual relations with your father's sister—Leviticus 18:12

  91. Not to have sexual relations with your mother's sister—Leviticus 18:13

  92. Not to have sexual relations with your father's brother's wife—Leviticus 18:14

  93. Not to have sexual relations with your son's wife—Leviticus 18:15

  94. Not to have sexual relations with your brother's wife—Leviticus 18:16

  95. Not to have sexual relations with your wife's sister—Leviticus 18:18

  96. A man must not have sexual relations with a beast—Leviticus 18:23

  97. A woman must not have sexual relations with a beast—Leviticus 18:23

  98. Not to have homosexual sexual relations—Leviticus 18:22

  99. Not to have homosexual sexual relations with your father—Leviticus 18:7

  100. Not to have homosexual sexual relations with your father's brother—Leviticus 18:14

  101. Not to have sexual relations with a married woman—Leviticus 18:20

  102. Not to have sexual relations with a menstrually impure woman—Leviticus 18:19

  103. Not to castrate any male (including animals)--Leviticus 22:24

  104. Not to make pleasurable (sexual) contact with any forbidden woman—Leviticus 18:6

  105. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher—Leviticus 11:21

  106. Not to eat non-kosher animals—Leviticus 11:4

  107. Not to eat non-kosher fowl—Leviticus 11:13

  108. Not to eat non-kosher fish—Leviticus 11:11

  109. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects—Deuteronomy 14:19

  110. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land—Leviticus 11:41

  111. Not to eat non-kosher maggots—Leviticus 11:44

  112. Not to eat worms found in fruit once they have left the fruit—Leviticus 11:42

  113. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish—Leviticus 11:43

  114. Not to benefit from a beast condemned to be stoned—Exodus 21:28

  115. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded—Exodus 22:30

  116. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature—Deuteronomy 12:23

  117. Not to eat blood—Leviticus 3:17

  118. Not to eat meat and milk cooked together—Exodus 23:19

  119. Not to cook meat and milk together—Exodus 34:26

  120. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth—Leviticus 17:13

  121. Not to take the mother bird from her children—Deuteronomy 22:6

  122. To release the mother bird before taking the children—Deuteronomy 22:7

  123. Not to swear falsely in G‑d's Name—Leviticus 19:12

  124. Not to take G‑d's Name in vain—Exodus 20:7

  125. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you—Leviticus 19:11

  126. Not to swear falsely in denial of a monetary claim—Leviticus 19:11

  127. To swear in G‑d's Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court—Deuteronomy 10:20

  128. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed—Deuteronomy 23:24

  129. Not to break oaths or vows—Numbers 30:3

  130. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah—Numbers 30:3

  131. Not to plant diverse seeds together—Leviticus 19:19

  132. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard—Deuteronomy 22:9

  133. Not to crossbreed animals—Leviticus 19:19

  134. Not to work different animals together—Deuteronomy 22:10

  135. Not to wear Shatnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen—Deuteronomy 22:11

  136. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor—Leviticus 19:10

  137. Not to reap that corner—Leviticus 19:9

  138. To leave gleanings for The poor—Leviticus 19:9

  139. Not to gather the gleanings—Leviticus 19:9

  140. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard—Leviticus 19:10

  141. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard—Leviticus 19:10

  142. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes for the poor—Leviticus 19:10

  143. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes—Leviticus 19:10

  144. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field for the poor—Deuteronomy 24:19

  145. Not to retrieve them—Deuteronomy 24:19

  146. To separate the tithe for the poor—Deuteronomy 14:28

  147. To give charity—Deuteronomy 15:11

  148. Not to withhold charity from the poor—Deuteronomy 15:7

  149. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth—Exodus 34:21

  150. Not to work the land during the seventh year—Leviticus 25:4

  151. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year—Leviticus 25:4

  152. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner—Leviticus 25:5

  153. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way—Leviticus 25:5

  154. To leave free all produce which grew in that year—Exodus 23:11

  155. To release all loans during the seventh year—Deuteronomy 15:3

  156. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower—Deuteronomy 15:2

  157. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss—Deuteronomy 15:9

  158. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year—Leviticus 25:11

  159. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year—Leviticus 25:11

  160. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year—Leviticus 25:11

  161. Carry out the laws of sold family properties—Leviticus 25:24

  162. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow—Deuteronomy 23:22

  163. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity—Leviticus 15:19

  164. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth—Leviticus 12:2

  165. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman's running issue—Leviticus 15:25

  166. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man's running issue (irregular ejaculation of infected semen)--Leviticus 15:3

  167. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast—Leviticus 11:39

  168. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (rodents, amphibious creatures, and lizards) [specified in the Torah]--Leviticus 11:29

  169. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (regular ejaculation, with normal semen)--Leviticus 15:16

  170. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer—Numbers 35:31

  171. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge—Numbers 35:25

  172. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge—Numbers 35:32

  173. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial—Numbers 35:12

  174. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer—Deuteronomy 25:12

  175. Not to pity the pursuer—Numbers 35:12

  176. Not to stand idly by if someone's life is in danger—Leviticus 19:16

  177. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access—Deuteronomy 19:3

  178. To neither work nor plant that river valley—Deuteronomy 21:4

  179. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property—Deuteronomy 22:8

  180. Make a guard rail around flat roofs—Deuteronomy 22:8

  181. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice)--Leviticus 19:14

  182. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it—Exodus 23:5

  183. Help others load their beast—Deuteronomy 22:4

  184. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload)--Deuteronomy 22:4

  185. Buy and sell according to Torah law—Leviticus 25:14

  186. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article—Leviticus 25:14

  187. Not to insult or harm anybody with words—Leviticus 25:17

  188. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard Exodus 22:9

  189. Pay wages on the day they were earned—Deuteronomy 24:15

  190. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time—Leviticus 19:13

  191. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works—Deuteronomy 23:25

  192. The worker must not eat while on hired time—Deuteronomy 23:26

  193. The worker must not take more than he can eat—Deuteronomy 23:25

  194. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing—Deuteronomy 25:4

  195. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower—Exodus 22:13

  196. Not to curse judges—Exodus 22:27

  197. Transgressors must not testify—Exodus 23:1

  198. Relatives of the litigants must not testify—Deuteronomy 24:16

  199. Not to testify falsely—Exodus 20:13

  200. Punish the false witnesses with the same punishment they were seeking for the defendant—Deuteronomy 19:19

  201. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations—Deuteronomy 13:1

  202. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part—Deuteronomy 13:1

  203. Not to curse your father or mother—Exodus 21:17

  204. Not to strike your father or mother—Exodus 21:15

  205. Respect your father and mother—Exodus 20:12

  206. Fear your father and mother—Leviticus 19:3

  207. Not to be a rebellious son—Deuteronomy 21:20

  208. Mourn for relatives—Leviticus 10:19

  209. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms—Deuteronomy 20:10

  210. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege—Deuteronomy 20:19

  211. Prepare latrines outside the army camps—Deuteronomy 23:13

  212. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with—Deuteronomy 23:14

  213. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions—Deuteronomy 24:5

  214. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military—Deuteronomy 24:5

  215. Not to panic and retreat during battle—Deuteronomy 20:3

  216. Keep the laws of the captive woman—Deuteronomy 21:11

  217. Not to sell her into slavery—Deuteronomy 21:14

  218. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her—Deuteronomy 21:14

74
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    I would sign a petition to reinstitute breaking the neck of a calf by a stream following an unsolved murder.
    – shmosel
    Feb 5 at 6:05
  • 1
    Number 73 is definitely out - עכו"ם ששבת חייב מיתה. Also 79, since the sotah ritual is specifically for Jews. There are probably others that should be taken out as well.
    – Meir
    Feb 5 at 15:04
  • 1
    @Miguel indeed, the good reason is that it will refine a Jewish neshama, but it won't for (and might harm) a non Jewish neshama. See Paul's answer, and consider getting hold of AskNoah folk, or The Divine Code. Consider that just because Hashem needs something from a Jew, doesn't mean He needs the same thing from a non-Jew, in the same way (l'havdil) that we need different things from different relationships, and crossing those boundaries is inappropriate (we need certain things from our spouse, which would be completely inappropriate from a friend etc)
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Feb 5 at 15:28
  • 1
    @Miguel Indeed they do, but not all of the ones in this post. The Talmud (Chullin 92a, bottom) mentions "30 mitzvos" applicable to Noachides, and in the back of one of the volumes of Encyclopedia Talmudis there are a couple of listings of them, including one that shows how they branch out from the 7.
    – Meir
    Feb 6 at 3:34
  • 1
    Not to bear a grudge—Leviticus 19:18. Not to embarrass others—Leviticus 19:17. Let us observe these commandments (especially for this discussion we are currently having) before things spiral out of control.
    – Miguel
    Feb 8 at 17:39

1 Answer 1

3

To answer your question: No, everyone would not benefit. We are two different people groups with two different relationships with Hashem. Even when Moshiach is here, we will still be different. If someone wants a fuller, deeper relationship with Hashem, they can become a Jew with the 613 mitzvot and everything that comes with it. Otherwise, we serve Hashem as He made us, as Noahides.

Some of those commands can be derived from the 7 Noahide Laws. Some are not obligated to non-Jews and they would receive no spiritual benefit.

The book, The Divine Code, by Rabbi Moshe Weiner deals extensively with this subject.

Here is an excerpt from the AskNoah website - they publish the book...

“6. If a Gentile wants to do one of the other commandments from the Torah [beyond the 7 Noahide Commandments] in order to receive a practical benefit [for himself or for society] (but not as a direct commandment), [he should not be prevented] from doing so, even according to its correct laws for Jews (for example, if he desires to tithe for [proper] charity from his money or produce)… However, if a Gentile observes any of the Jewish commandments from the Torah as a religious obligation (even if he does so from a desire to receive a spiritual reward), this is forbidden based on the prohibition of adding a commandment, and there is no spiritual reward to be derived from this.”

2
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    To repent and confess wrongdoings—Numbers 5:7 To serve the Almighty with prayer daily—Exodus 23:25 To bless the Almighty after eating—Deuteronomy 8:10. None of these are part of the 7 noahide laws. Therefore neither of these commandments would give a gentile spiritual benefit?
    – Miguel
    Feb 7 at 18:50
  • @Miguel I would say yes, there is spiritual benefit to Gentile for these things you mention, but it's limited and I might be wrong. It's difficult to answer this in a concise manner. When a Gentile repents, his transgressions don't become blessings. When a Gentile prays, he doesn't have a priestly obligation to the world. Hashem didn't give us the land. I would say if a Gentile is interested in adding a mitzvot to his life, spend time learning about it from Jewish sources for awhile. Have to shake off cultural assumptions. Feb 7 at 21:46

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