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I am curious about whether the concept of qualified immunity (for monetary liability) exists in Halacha. Qualified immunity in secular law generally means one who is a judge or police officer is generally not liable to be sued due to them acting with discretion in their field. In the first Mishnah of Masechet Horayot it is stated

If a court erroneously issued a ruling permitting the Jewish people to violate one of all the mitzvot that are stated in the Torah, and an individual proceeded and performed that transgression unwittingly on the basis of the court’s ruling, then whether the judges performed the transgression and he performed it with them, or whether the judges performed the transgression and he performed it after them, or whether the judges did not perform the transgression and he performed it alone, in all these cases the individual is exempt from bringing an offering. This is due to the fact that he associated his action with the ruling of the court. If the court issued a ruling and one of the judges knew that they erred, despite the fact that the majority ruled against his opinion, or if he was a student and he was qualified to issue halakhic rulings, and that judge or student proceeded and performed that transgression on the basis of its ruling, then whether the judges performed the transgression and he performed it with them, or whether the judges performed the transgression and he performed it after them, or whether the judges did not perform the transgression and he performed it alone, in all these cases, the judge or the student is liable to bring an offering. This is due to the fact that he did not associate his action with the ruling of the court. This is the principle: One who associates his action with himself is liable, and one who associates his action with the ruling of the court is exempt.

My question is, if a Beit Din did an erroneous ruling which wrongly held someone liable to pay someone, fined them, wrongly convicted them (if they have that power) etc. due to factors like bad witnesses, circumstantial evidence, etc. are they liable to be sued by the innocent party? Or is there a concept in Halacha equivalent to secular law’s qualified immunity they are exempt for discretion in judgement?

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    Isn't the better analogy a shliach beit din who accidentally damages something while doing his court-work?
    – Double AA
    Commented Feb 2 at 16:22
  • See siman 25 in choshen mishpat for all the permutations of this halacha sefaria.org/…
    – אילפא
    Commented Feb 2 at 16:29
  • See H. Sanhedrin 6 and Hoshen Mishpat 25 Commented Feb 2 at 16:41
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    The entirety of Choshen Mishpat §25 is about this question. Additionally, see the Mordechai on the first perek of Sanhedrin, which discusses the situation of a litigant suing a judge for malpractice.
    – moses
    Commented Feb 2 at 17:02

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