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According to Halacha, one is eligible for Cherem themselves if they put someone else in Cherem for an illegitimate reason. My question is, what constitutes a legitimate reason for Cherem and what constitutes an illegitimate reason?

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  • A cherem for a cherem puts the whole world in cherem
    – shmosel
    Jan 7 at 2:33

1 Answer 1

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Yoreh Deah 334:43 lists 24 instances of when to impose a cherem and is also brought down in Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Talmud Torah 6:14

List as follows:

  1. A person who disgraces a sage, even after his passing.

  2. A person who embarrasses a messenger of a court

  3. A person who calls a colleague a slave

  4. A person who was ordered [to appear before] a court at a specific time and did not come

  5. A person who treats even one point of Rabbinic law with disrespect; needless to say, this applies regarding [matters of] Torah law

  6. A person who refuses to comply with the decisions [rendered by a court] is placed under ban until he complies

  7. A person who possesses an entity that can cause damage - e.g., a dangerous dog or a faulty ladder - is placed under ban until he removes that entity

  8. A person who sells land to a gentile is placed under ban until he accepts responsibility for any damages which the gentile may cause his Jewish neighbour

  9. A person who testifies against a Jewish colleague in a secular court and causes money which Torah law would not [require him to pay] to be expropriated from him is placed under ban until he repays [that amount]

  10. A butcher who is a priest and does not separate the priestly gifts and give them to another priest is placed under ban until he gives them.

  11. A person who violates the sanctity of the second day of the festivals in the Diaspora, even though [their observance] is only a custom

l2) A person who performs work on Pesach eve after noon

  1. A person who takes G-d's name in vain or takes an oath casually

  2. A person who causes the many to desecrate God's name

  3. A person who causes the many to eat sacrificial food outside [its proper place]

  4. A person who calculates the years [and declares a leap year] or fixes the day of the new month in the Diaspora

  5. A person who causes the blind [ - i.e., the morally unaware - ] to stumble

  6. A person who prevents the many from performing a mitzvah

  7. A butcher who sold non-kosher meat

  8. A butcher who does not inspect his knife in the presence of a sage

  9. A person who intentionally causes himself to have an erection

  10. A person who divorced his wife, and then entered into a partnership or business dealing with her which requires them to come into contact. When they come to court, they are placed under ban

  11. A sage whose reputation is unsavory

  12. A person who places a person under ban when the latter does not deserve [such punishment]

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