The open siddur project demonstrates that the claim that this was composed by Rabbi Joseph of Rashkow, Posen can't be true as it is found in the siddur Tikunei Shabbat from 1614, before his time. The Tikunei Shabbat siddur is seemingly a posthumous work of Rabbi Yitzchak Luria (the Arizal), or perhaps from the school of the Ari.
I remember my father or grandmother telling me that back in Aden, they would say this prayer on Friday night. It seems that the history of this prayer is still an area of research and therefore I'd like to ask on Mi Yodeya if anyone has any further information about who composed this prayer, and what was the reason for its composition?
I do note that it contains a lot of supplications, and we generally avoid praying for physical needs on Shabbat (see Taanit 19a; Bava Batra 91a; Yerushalmi, Shabbat 15:3 etc), so I would be curious to find out if there is any resolution between that as well.
Basically, I am looking for any information on the origins and meaning of this prayer.