There are some well known cases of certain Jews being excommunicated from their communities (e.g. Spinoza). However, it's not clear to me whether its possible for excommunication to be reversed and under what circumstances that'd occur and what it would look like as a process, hence the question of what the halachic process for this is.

  • See Shulchan Aruch Yoreah Deah, 334:23, for the process of being matir a niduy.
    – malkizedek
    Nov 11, 2023 at 19:32
  • @malkizedek Will do, thanks
    – setszu
    Nov 11, 2023 at 19:37

1 Answer 1


There is no halachic process to reverse excommunication simply because in the Talmudic-Biblical tradition there is no such thing as theological heresy. Why would you need a process to remove something that does not exist?

The Talmudic rabbis codified no theological dogma (including in the Mishnah of Sanhedrin 10, 1) requiring adherence to, or belief in, any theological doctrine.

Had Judaism continued in its ancient orthoprax path instead, "heretics" like Spinoza would never have been excommunicated. Nonetheless, Judaism should reserve the excommunication of Spinoza.

  • This is clearly wrong. There are many instances all over Shas of various people being put into נידוי for their actions.
    – malkizedek
    Nov 11, 2023 at 19:26
  • @malkizedek That’s a distortion of the Talmudic tradition.
    – Turk Hill
    Nov 12, 2023 at 0:25
  • According to you, very large swathes of maseches Nedarim and maseches Taanis are "distortions" or forgeries, ch"v. עפרא לפומך
    – malkizedek
    Nov 12, 2023 at 17:20

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