If someone wakes up too late for shacharit, does he still wash netilat yedayim and recite the morning blessings?


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In regards to washing netilat yadayim, the Mishna Berura (Orach Chayim 4:1:1) says that there are two reasons given to wash netilat yadayim in the morning:

יש על זה שני טעמים. הרא"ש כתב, לפי שידים של אדם עסקניות הן, ואי אפשר שלא יגע בבשר המטונף בלילה; לזה תיקנו חז"ל ברכה על הנטילה לקריאת שמע ולתפילה. והרשב"א כתב: לפי שבשחר אחר השינה אנו נעשים כבריה חדשה... צריכין אנו להודות לו יתברך... ועל דבר זה תיקנו בשחר כל אותן הברכות שאנו מברכין בכל בוקר; לכן גם דבר זה תיקנו בשחר, להתקדש בקדושתו וליטול ידינו מן הכלי, ככהן שמקדש ידיו מן הכיור קודם עבודתו. ולהלכה אנו תופסים כשני הטעמים לחומרא לעניין נטילה, וכדלקמן בזה הסימן. ואם לא בירך "על נטילת ידים" קודם התפילה, שוב לא יברך אחר התפילה לכולי עלמא

There are two reasons for this, the Ra"sh says, since man's hands are 'busy', it is impossible to not touch the dirty skin at night [i.e. any skin that is generally covered, source needed]. For this reason Chaza"l made the bracha of Netilat yadayim for Kriat shema and tfila. And the Rashb"a wrote that because in the morning we are like new creations... We must thank HaShem... And for this purpose all of the morning blessings were written, and for this reason this was a takana for the morning, to become holy with HaShems holiness and wash his hands from a vessel, like a Kohen sanctifying his hands prior to his service. We hold by both opinions L'Halacha, as we see later [that we only make a bracha when both reasons are applicable - one has slept, and the night has passed]. But if he hasn't said the bracha of "Al netilat yadayim" before tfila, then everyone holds he no longer blesses after tfila

In short, the reasons for washing are still applicable: if one was asleep, overnight, then everyone holds his hands need washing (in fact, the shulchan aruch says later on (4:3) that he shouldn't touch any orifices before washing). However, both the Ra"sh and the Rashb"a, as well as the mishna brura himself, seem to imply that the bracha is specifically said before tfila. So if one is no longer able to pray, then seemingly the blessing is no longer applicable, even though he should wash his hands.

By the blessings on learning, the shulchan aruch says (47:2)

צריך לברך בין למקרא בין למשנה בין לגמרא

One must bless [before learning] Tanach, Mishna or Gemara

Which seemingly means that they must be said before learning for the first time each day, even if one won't be praying shacharit.

"Asher Yatzar" is said any time one uses the bathroom.

In regards to all other blessings, the Mishna Berura (Orach Chayim 52:1:10) says:

ועיין בספר מאמר מרדכי ובספר נהר שלום דזמן כל הברכות הוא כל היום בדיעבד וכן כתב בספר מעשה רב להגר"א ז"ל והוסיף שם עוד יותר דאפילו בלילה עד שעת השינה הוא חיובן אם שכח לאומרן קודם ונ"ל דאם חוטפתו שינה לכו"ע לא יכול תו לברך ברכת המעביר שינה [דוגמת בהמ"ז בסימן קפ"ד ס"ה עי"ש] ומ"מ לכתחלה צריך ליזהר שלא לאחר הברכות יותר מד' שעות על היום אך בדיעבד עכ"פ יכול לברך אותם עד חצות כי כן מוכח מהרבה אחרונים שלא הפסיד הברכות אחר ד' שעות והמקיל לסמוך בדיעבד על הגדולים הנ"ל ולברך אותם אחר חצות אין למחות בידו

And see the Seforim 'Maamar Mordechai and Nahar Shalom, that all the blessings can be said the entire day, bedieved, the Gr"a said the same in his Sefer, Maaseh Rav, and added that they can even be said at night before sleep if he forgot to say them. And I think that if sleep takes him [meaning, if he fell asleep for a little bit, but didn't 'go to sleep'], then he can no longer say the blessing of "the one who passes the sleep from my eyes" (like we see by bircat hamazon 184:5 in Orach Chayim). Even so, lechatchila, one should be careful to not say the blessings past four hours into the day [which is the same as when one should pray shacharis, lechatchila], however, bedieved, he can say the blessings until midday as many Achronim say that he hasn't missed the blessings after four hours. And if one relies on the previously mentioned Achronim to make the blessings bedieved after midday, we do not tell him to stop.

So, in short, the blessings should be made up to four hours into the day, bedieved they can be made until midday, and if one makes the blessings after midday we don't tell him to stop (implying that one shouldn't make the blessings then, but if he does there are Poskim to rely on).

  • He still needs to pray, even if not shacharis
    – Double AA
    Commented Nov 11, 2023 at 23:52
  • @DoubleAA true, and I thought of that, but the Mishna Berura says that once he's prayed shacharis, he no longer says the bracha. Which seems to mean that the bracha is only applicable by shacharis
    – Lo ani
    Commented Nov 12, 2023 at 0:13

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