# How can one reconcile statistics with this pasuk in Koheles?

The pasuk in Koheles states:

שַׁבְתִּי וְרָאֹה תַחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כִּי לֹא לַקַּלִּים הַמֵּרוֹץ וְלֹא לַגִּבּוֹרִים הַמִּלְחָמָה וְגַם לֹא לַחֲכָמִים לֶחֶם וְגַם לֹא לַנְּבֹנִים עֹשֶׁר וְגַם לֹא לַיֹּדְעִים חֵן כִּי עֵת וָפֶגַע יִקְרֶה אֶת כֻּלָּם.

How does this make sense?

Aren't people who are swift more likely to win races, and people who are mighty more likely to win wars (etc.)?

Please provide sources, preferably from Rishonim, who address this question.

• See Rashi. It's not a statistical statement; it's saying that the speed of the swift and the strength of the mighty won't save them when their time is up. Nov 7, 2023 at 4:44
• @shmosel Thanks for pointing this out. I don't think Rashi is in accordance with peshuto shel mikra. I'll cite the Rashbam's answer below as an example of peshuto shel mikra. Nov 8, 2023 at 12:17
• My pre-edit comment was actually your answer before I realized what Rashi was getting at. In any case, I don't see it as a contradiction; rather, one follows from the other. The swift don't always win the race, therefore they can't rely on it. Nov 8, 2023 at 18:06