There are various pictures pre-dating the 1967 Six Day War, available on the Internet and in various scholarly sources, clearly showing free mixing among the genders at the Kotel (Western Wall) in the midst of prayers without any mechitza. (It's possible that they never had any formal minyanim there, but that seems unlikely). Are there any halachic authorities which relate to these practices at the Kotel?
Some historical background from this article from the National Library of Israel: http://web.nli.org.il/sites/NLI/Hebrew/library/reading_corner/Pages/mehitsa.aspx
Jewish testimony from the British era stated that a mehitza was occasionally used during Ottoman rule, but no permanent structure was permitted. A semi-permanent mehitza was built sometime after the British gained control of Israel in World War I. On Yom Kippur, September 24, 1928, an English military officer tore down the mehitza that existed at the time. This led to a bit of a tussle and multiple injuries to some of the assembled.
(Interestingly, during Turkish and British rule, it was described by eyewitnesses as a disgustingly dirty area, with cow dung and sewage strewn about. This also didn't seem to prevent people's praying there despite the relevant halachic prohibitions. Perhaps that is appropriate for a separate SE question.)
Shortly after conquering the Kotel in 1967, the Religious Ministry of the Israeli government put up a permanent mehitza.
A large collection of pictures can be found at The National Library of Israel - 150 Years of Photographs of the Kotel
Here's are some examples:
You can also view a video here from 1909: https://www.facebook.com/HanochDaum/videos/1197498436938514/