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A convert has a son who dies. The man has no assets but marries a convert woman, who also has no assets. They have a son together. The man died and the woman does the same thing again.

I made everyone converts so they legally have no family besides their children. I made everyone destitute so nobody could say that any money belonged to a husband.

She thus has two sons who are not a bechor by their father. She then finds some money and dies. Will one of her sons receive a double portion?

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The laws of bechor for inheritance does not apply to assets of the mother, only the father. This is taught in a Mishna in Bechoros 51B and Bava Basra 122B

הבכור נוטל פי שנים בנכסי האב ואינו נוטל פי שנים בנכסי האם

The firstborn son takes a double portion, i.e., twice the portion taken by the other sons, when inheriting the property of the father, but he does not take twice the portion when inheriting the property of the mother

The Gemara explains that this is leaned from the passuk ולו משפט הבכורה, משפט הבכורה לאיש ואין משפט הבכורה לאשה

The Shulchan Aruch in Choshen Mishpat 278:1 codifies this halacha

אין הבכור נוטל פי שנים אלא בנכסי האב אבל לא בנכסי האם אפי' אם הוא בכור לאב ולאם חולקים בנכסים הוא והפשוט בשוה

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