Who were the sons of God in Job 1 & 2? Could we say that they are the council of the elohim referred to in Psalm 82? Also alluded to in Psalm 89:5-7, 1 Kings 22 and in Daniel 4 referred to as the watchers. God is often called Lord of hosts. Are all these terms relating to the same concept of there being a heavenly council? Are these angels that partake in God's decision making process as depicted in 1 Kings 22?

  • This does deserve an appropriate answer, verse-by-verse, but in short -- you're using Christian translations here and thus talking a different language.
    – Shalom
    Sep 10, 2023 at 10:22
  • Please go to Sefaria.org and check out the Jewish translations on these verses -- especially Silverstein's and the Jerusalem translations. (JPS and NJPS are less-good.)
    – Shalom
    Sep 10, 2023 at 10:26
  • This might provide an answer to your second question.
    – Shmuel
    Sep 10, 2023 at 11:59
  • 1
    Partial duplicates: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/8858 and judaism.stackexchange.com/q/59041
    – msh210
    Sep 10, 2023 at 12:15
  • @Shalom would you like to explain why a Christian translation is a problem? I use an interlinear Bible web site so that I can see what the word used was in Hebrew as I understand that the only way to understand something is to read it in its original language. If the Hebrew word used is indeed ben elohim then that is son of 'god' as translated in the English bible. Therefore I dont understand your comment. Or perhaps you are referring to translations that are based on commentaries or opinions of the translators? Sep 12, 2023 at 3:36

1 Answer 1


Refer to Rashi on Job 1:2. The posuk (Koren translation) says:

Now there was a day when the sons of G-d came to present themselves before the L-rd

Rashi says that this means:

and the angels of G-d came to stand beside the L-rd to contend with Him, because the expression of standing refers only to judgment, as it is stated (Isa. 3:13): “The L-rd stands to plead.”

The Malbim has a lengthy explanation and quotes the Rambam. He says:

Behold, we have a tradition that each of the natural forces of creation is governed by a superior agency that is also its source. These are the 'sons of G-d' who were in attendance before the L-rd; angels that are controlled by and receive their power from G-d and who are in turn appointed over each of the forces of existence. As the Talmudic Sages said: There is no plant that does not have an angel appointed over it telling it to grow. Likewise, an ethereal agent has also been appointed over the force of extinction and destruction: Satan, the adversary, the killer and the destroyer. As the Talmudic Sages said: He is Satan, he is the evil inclination, he is the Angel of Death (Baba Batra 16a), He is the accuser, the one permitted to corrupt and destroy.

  • @Shmeul. Thank you for your answer. I am beginning to understand the concept of "satan" better. Christianity views 'satan' as a being in opposition to God. I have started to understand that this is not what "satan" is. Especially in the Hebrew scriptures when they refer to "satan" and 'hasatan" - I am still trying to renew my mind in this aspect as years of christian teaching is embedded in my way of thinking. Sep 20, 2023 at 5:31

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