There are two main positions held by mainstream religious Jews regarding climate change.
A quick summary of the theory of climate change: CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels, are causing the Earth's climate to warm to the point that it will eventually become so hot at the poles that the icecaps will melt, resulting in a rise in sea levels that will devestate large swaths of currently inhabited land, including 75% of the world's major cities.
One group of mainstream religious Jews looks at this phenomenon and immediately sees the Rambam's Negative Commandment #57 against wanton/needless destruction.
Interestingly, this commandment, which is based on Devarim 20:19 is read out by the Gemarra to refer to needless destruction in general, but in the Torah refers specifically to trees (the case in the Torah is the fruit trees belonging to an enemy city under siege and how even in such a situation it is forbidden to destroy them).
The other mainstream group of religious Jews looks at this phenomenon and immediately refers to Genesis 9:11-14 and says, "oh, the fear is that the world will be destroyed by a flood? G-d explicitly said, "And I will establish My covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth."
The latter argument is further bolstered by the Gemarra in Avodah Zarah 3B-4A, which states
"And if you wish, say instead that this is referring to the World-to-Come, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: There is no Gehenna in the World-to-Come. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will remove the sun from its sheath [minnarteikah], where it is situated during these times, and heats [umakdir] that world with it. The wicked will be punished by it and consumed by the heat, but the righteous will be healed by it. The wicked will be punished by it, as it is written:
“For, behold, the day comes, it burns as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that comes shall set them ablaze, said the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch” (Malachi 3:19).
This verse is interpreted as follows: Neither a root shall remain for them in this world, nor will a branch grow for them in the World-to-Come. This teaches that the sun itself will burn and consume the wicked in the future. And the righteous will be healed by it, as it is written in the next verse: “But to you that fear My Name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings” (Malachi 3:20). And moreover, not only will they be healed by it, but they will even be rejuvenated by it, as it is stated in the continuation of that verse: “And you shall go forth and leap as calves of the stall.” [end quote from the Gemarra]
This Gemarra appears to imply that a process similar to what we perceive as global warming may actually be extremely beneficial.
Both groups clearly have solid textual suport for their positions, and both groups have rabbis big and small in their camps.