One fairly recent popularizer of this notion was R. Joseph B. Soloveitchik, quoting his father R. Moshe Soloveichik.
Kol Dodi Dofek (ch. 11):
At a meeting of Mizrachi (the Religious Zionists of America), I repeated, in the name of my father (of blessed memory), that the notion of “the Lord will have war against Amalek from generation to generation” (Exodus 17:16) is not confined to a certain race, but includes a necessary attack against any nation or group infused with mad hatred that directs its enmity against the community of Israel.
When a nation emblazons on its standard, “Come, let us cut them off from being a nation so that the name of Israel shall no longer be remembered” (Psalms 83:5), it becomes Amalek. In the 1930’s and 1940’s the Nazis, with Hitler at their helm, filled this role. In this most recent period they were the Amalekites, the representatives of insane hate. Today, the throngs of Nasser and the Mufti have taken their place.
(translation by David Z. Gordon, hosted at sefaria.org; emphasis mine)