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I am looking for resources which discuss the proper behavior if one walks in to a room when the kahal has already begun to recite Kedusha.

My specific interests include whether one says introductory parts quietly to catch up or just jumps in and says what the congregation is up to, and how far one may walk during kedusha (and whether that is suspended in some cases).

I'm not looking to read up on whether one looks up, or bows or lifts the feet, just how one who enters a room/space is supposed to adapt himself to the kedusha moment.

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  • Regarding your middle paragraph, it’s worth noting that classically only the chazzan would say the introductory passages, with the congregation simply responding with the appropriate verses.
    – Joel K
    Commented May 15, 2023 at 11:19
  • There will be a difference in the answer if you are part of that minyan or just passing by please specify Commented May 15, 2023 at 11:24
  • @JoelK if a congregant wants to say the chazzan parts for fun too, then this case shouldn't be worse than the regular case (where most prohibit and some allow). Someone following the lenient position in general should be able to have the time of his life here too if he so desires
    – Double AA
    Commented May 15, 2023 at 11:41
  • @JoelK additionally there's no real reason to stand still except when reciting those verses
    – Double AA
    Commented May 15, 2023 at 11:46
  • @DoubleAA What about saying the introductory parts to “catch up” while the congregation is already saying a verse, thereby not saying the verse at the correct time? That could be worse then the regular case
    – Joel K
    Commented May 15, 2023 at 11:56

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The Mishna Berura סימן קכה ס"ק א says the following:

הטעם דניתקן שש"ץ יאמרנו בשביל הקהל ויהיה שלוחם וכשגם הצבור אומרים אותו איך יקרא הש"ץ שלוחם וכן בקדיש יש ליזהר שלא לומר עם החזן יתגדל וכו' עד איש"ר. ואפילו יש מנין מלבדו ששומעין ומאזינין לש"ץ ג"כ אסור כי על כ"א שבבהכ"נ החיוב לשתוק ולהאזין לש"ץ ואח"כ לענות אחריו

The reason is that the prayer leader says it on behalf of the congregation and he is their emissary, and when the congregation also says it, how can the prayer leader be called their emissary? And so too with Kaddish one should be careful not to say with the prayer leader Yitgadal etc. And even if there is a quorum besides him who listen and pay attention to the prayer leader, it is also forbidden because everyone in the synagogue has an obligation to be silent and listen to the prayer leader and then answer after him… (Bing AI translation)

If one is part or wants to be part of the Minyan he must listen and respond (davening and learning in not allowed) If however he is just passing by the following would apply:

The Mishna Berura explains in this paragraph that the reason one must be silent and answer during Kedusha is because he is acting as your agent. We can infer that if you are not part of the minyan, you don't have to be silent or answer.
He also says 'Everyone in the shul must listen..." from here we infer everyone even if they are not part of the minyan! So you would have to be silent and answer!
This seems to contradict itself. However, among the contemporary authorities we find the following opinions:

This is a dispute among the authorities (so choose as you wish or ask your local rabbi).

Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach and Rabbi Elyashiv say one does not say Kedusha

The Chazon Ish (from Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky) says one must say Kedusha

(Sources are from Dirshu Mishna Berura and Dor Hamlaktim I am happy to provide exact references if necessary)

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