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When Purim falls out on Shabbos, why are you allowed to give Mishloach Manos? Aren't we afraid one might carry it to a friend? Like רבה says in Megilah Daf 4b :(https://www.sefaria.org/Megillah.4b.21?lang=he&with=all&lang2=he)

Tosfos Yom Tov on the Mishnah on Megilah Daf 5a: (https://www.sefaria.org/Tosafot_Yom_Tov_on_Mishnah_Megillah.1.3.7?lang=he&lookup) "Those who read the Megilah on these earlier dates can also discharge their obligation to give Gifts to the Poor. (מתנות לאביונים) However, they cannot discharge their obligation of Sending Portions to a friend, (משלוח מנות) since, that obligation is connected to the Purim Feast (סעודת פורים), about which we learned above on the beginning of this Amud (Daf 5a) that the villagers, too, celebrate it on Purim day.

So we see, that if the fourteenth falls out on Shabbat, even if you read the Megilah on Thursday, you still must do Mishloach Manos in it's proper time! (Shabat) But wouldn't that make millions, of people be Michalel Shabbos? Because they will CARRY the Mishloach Manos?

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  • Indeed not everyone holds the meal and gift-exchanges happen on the Sabbath
    – Double AA
    Apr 30, 2023 at 2:38
  • @DoubleAA do any of those opinions mention this as the reason for their opinion?
    – Chatzkel
    Apr 30, 2023 at 3:34

2 Answers 2

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You're probably not meant to give mishloach manos. See this Peninei Halakha for an explanation. Purim on the 14th Adar never falls out on Shabbos nowadays, but Shushan Purim in Jerusalem on the 15th can sometimes so the same issue occurs. This article explains the differences in detail. I will summarise. The same material is covered in Yalkut Yosef 688:30.

On Sunday, they eat the festive Purim meal and send mishloach manot to one another, since mishloach manot is connected to the meal... Since it is inappropriate to make such a meal on Shabbat, we postpone it until after Shabbat. It is best to eat more meat and drink more wine than usual even on Shabbat, because some authorities maintain that the seuda is supposed to be eaten on Shabbat. If possible, it is also good to send mishloach manot privately on Shabbat, on condition that there is an eruv in one’s location

See Orach Chaim 688:6: most hold like the Shulchan Aruch that the seuda is postponed to Sunday, so the mishloach manot is as well. Taz (sk.8) and Baer Hetev (sk.7) bring Ralbach (32) who disagrees and holds both on Shabbos. The reason why he says this is because, although the Yerushalmi (Megillah 1:4) suggests that the seuda should be postponed, the mitzvah is so important and clearly on the 15th of Adar that it cannot be moved. Even then, he says "והנני מודה שטעות גדולה היא אלי לחלוק על זה מכת השכל כיון שבירושלמי נאמר", he understands that it is very controversial for him to disagree with the Yerushalmi, but he feels compelled. He also argues that his view is hinted at in the Rambam, who says nothing about moving the seuda to Sunday. He also suggests that there are other ways to interpret the Yerushalmi, although the Ran 3a is clear about it meaning that the seuda should be on Sunday.

Magen Avraham (sk.10) overrules this opinion. L'maaseh most authorities do mishloach manos only on Sunday and disagree with the Maharalbach. Mishnah Berurah (688:18) holds like this (citing Radbaz 1:508 and Korban Netanel Megillah 1:7:4), and so does the Aruch Hashulchan (688:17). See Noda Biyehuda (1:42) for an explanation of why he hold like this, as well as Tashbetz 3:298.

However, the Pri Megadim EA 688:7 brings the Pri Chadash who tries to resolve this by doing the seuda and mishloach manos on Shabbos and Sunday. There is a possibility that the Magen Avraham wasn't entirely censuring mishloach manos on Shabbos, just saying that we are not obligated. Rav Moshe Sternbuch Teshuvot VHanhagot 3:239:3 says that this is the custom in Jerusalem to be careful for both opinions and agrees with the Maharalbach's reasoning.

Interestingly, this is an example of a halacha only sourced in the Yerushalmi: Talmud Yerushalmi Halachot

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  • Some hold the gifts are given on Friday in advance of the seudah
    – Double AA
    Apr 30, 2023 at 12:08
  • These poskim all discuss 15 Adar on shabbat. Would they hold the same for 14 Adar on Shabbat?
    – Double AA
    Apr 30, 2023 at 12:09
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    This didn’t answer the question at all. Those who hold that you give it on Shabbos, why aren’t they afraid of coming to carry, just like the Megilla? All this does is give an overview of Purim meshulash which is irrelevant. Moreover, the question is about the Mishnah, when it was entirely possible for Purim on the 14th to fall on Shabbos
    – Chatzkel
    Apr 30, 2023 at 12:12
  • Would there be a difference between the 14th and 15th?
    – Meir Luria
    Apr 30, 2023 at 12:29
  • You say hinted at in the Rambam, but more importantly it's hinted in the Bavli since the Bavli had plenty of opportunities to mention this alleged rule and doesn't. The simple reading of the Bavli is definitely that it's on Shabbat (and hence the Rambam)
    – Double AA
    Apr 30, 2023 at 13:05
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It would seem that the difference is that by Megillah, the fear is that one might come to carry it in public domain to bring it to a scholar, in order to learn its laws

Mishloach Manos on the other hand, can be given to anyone - including a member of your own household!

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    This is plausible, but note the Meiri seems to say giving the gifts on shabbat wouldn't be allowed
    – Double AA
    Apr 30, 2023 at 13:04

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