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The Mishna in Megilla 1:2 uses varying terminology to refer to days of the week:

מְגִילָּה נִקְרֵאת בְּאַחַד עָשָׂר, בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר, כֵּיצַד. חָל לִהְיוֹת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בַּשֵּׁנִי, כְּפָרִים וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קוֹרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה לְמָחָר. חָל לִהְיוֹת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹ בָּרְבִיעִי, כְּפָרִים מַקְדִּימִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קוֹרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה לְמָחָר. חָל לִהְיוֹת בָּחֲמִישִׁי, כְּפָרִים וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קוֹרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה לְמָחָר. חָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, כְּפָרִים מַקְדִּימִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה, וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה קוֹרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם. חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּפָרִים וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת מַקְדִּימִין וְקוֹרִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה, וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה לְמָחָר. חָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, כְּפָרִים מַקְדִּימִין לְיוֹם הַכְּנִיסָה, וַעֲיָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת קוֹרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּמֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה לְמָחָר:

How does it work? If the fourteenth of the month fell on a Monday, villages and large cities read on that day, and those surrounded by a wall - on the next day. If it fell on a Tuesday or a Wednesday - villages [read] in advance on the day of assembly, and large cities read on that day, and those surrounded by a wall - on the next day. If it fell on a Thursday, villages and large cities read on that day, and those surrounded by a wall - on the next day. If it fell on the day before Shabbat - villages [read] in advance on the day of assembly, and large cities and cities surrounded by a wall read on that day. If it fell on Shabbat, villages and large cities read in advance on the day of assembly, and those surrounded by a wall - on the next day. If it fell after Shabbat, villages [read] in advance on the assembly day, and large cities read on that day, and cities surrounded by a wall - on the next day.

Why does the Mishnah refer to Sunday as “אחר שבת” - "after Shabbat" and not as “בראשון”, just like Monday is called ״בשני״ and Tuesday ״בשלישי״ etc.?

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To answer the first question, in Maseches Sofrim 17:5 it refers to Sunday as “מוצאי שבת”, and states that in the days of the Beis Hamikdash, there was a rotation of people who fasted every day of the week aside from ״ערב שבת״ and
״מוצאי שבת״ - meaning Sunday - because of the honor of Shabbos

Another reason it gives, is because of the “additional soul” - Rashi (Ta’anis 27b) explains that it goes away after Shabbos leaving the body weak and hard to fast the next day

The Ben Ish Chai however, in his commentary Ben Yehoyada explains - based on the Arizal - that there is a certain aspect of the “additional soul” that remains through Sunday, and therefore they would not fast then

So we see from all this, that just like Friday had Halachik implications as a result of it being the day before Shabbos, and is called “Erev Shabbos”, so too Sunday, being that it comes after Shabbos, and therefore they did not establish a fast on that day, although nowadays - being that there aren’t any more rotations of daily fasting - it would seem like Sunday has no Halachik implications

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