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On Friday night we say:

וְהָיוּ לִמְשסָּה שאסָיִךְ. וְרָחֲקוּ כָּל מְבַלְּעָיִךְ - And your oppressors will be destroyed. And those who would devour you will be far away.

יָשיש עָלַיִךְ אֱלהָיִךְ. כִּמְשוש חָתָן עַל כַּלָּה - Your G-d will rejoice over you. Like a bridegroom rejoices over his bride.

What connection does the first stanza have to the second one?

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  • Welcome to MY and thanks for this great question. I hope you get some high quality answers as I also am very curious about this. Another translation of the first stanza is "your spoilers will be spoiled". Thus the connection is that we are spoiled and that carries with it a shame. But Hashem promises that it won't matter, we will feel like the most unspoiled person imaginable! A kalla whose chatan rejoices in her! Just a thought:) may that day arrive without delay
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Apr 4, 2023 at 20:56
  • Seems to be a play on כי יבעל בחור בתולה יבעלוך בניך
    – shmosel
    Apr 4, 2023 at 21:03
  • @RabbiKaii: Thank you for welcoming me, but I've been on this site before. I'm just under a different username 😉 . Apr 5, 2023 at 2:59

3 Answers 3

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Great question!

Just like everyone mentioned, that phrase comes from Yeshaya 62:5, כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֤ל בָּחוּר֙ בְּתוּלָ֔ה יִבְעָל֖וּךְ בָּנָ֑יִךְ וּמְשׂ֤וֹשׂ חָתָן֙ עַל־כַּלָּ֔ה יָשִׂ֥ישׂ עָלַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃, “As a youth espouses a maiden Your sons shall espouse you and as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your G-d rejoice over you.”

The Radak says:

ומשוש חתן על כלה. בימי חופתה שהוא נקרא חתן והיא כלה ואז הוא הששון והשמחה ביניהם יותר כי אז הם בחדושם כן יהיה שמחת אלהיך עליך כל הימים.

“In the days of her wedding which is called “chatan” and she is a kallah, and then there is more sasson and simcha between them, because then they are in a renewed state. So should the happiness of Hashem (your G-d) be on you all the (your) days.”

For more explanations on lecha dodi (and this passage specifically) see here: Peirush on Lecha Dodi

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  • Thanks for this wonderful Radak on the second stanza's source! How does this show a connection with the first stanza?
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Apr 5, 2023 at 0:31
  • I'm not sure I'm understanding your question correctly, can you expand? Apr 5, 2023 at 13:05
  • The section contains two stanzas, one from Yirmiyahu and one from Yishayahu. You've given an explanation on the latter, the question is, what is the connection between the two. See my answer for example
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Apr 5, 2023 at 13:37
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Artscroll says "May your oppressors be downtrodden. Messianic times will bring a turnabout. Those who delighted in oppressing Israel will be dealt with measure for measure. But as for Israel, their erstwhile victim, 'Your God will rejoice over you...'

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The first stanza is based on Yirmiyahu 30:16:

והיו שאסיך למשסה

Those who spoiled you will be spoiled

This translation follows Rashi there, who bases it on Targum Yonatan's וִיהוֹן עָדַיִךְ לַעֲדִי, which carries the connotation of a being defiled; innocence and purity violated.

Therefore, the second stanza now makes intuitive sense. It is based on Yishayahu 62:6:

כי־יבעל בחור בתולה יבעלוך בניך ומשוש חתן על־כלה ישיש עליך אלהיך

As a youth marries a virgin, your sons shall espouse you; And as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your God rejoice over you.

Hashem is telling us that even though we have been spoiled, and violated, we need not feel ashamed. He, our God will be towards us as if we are still a virgin, He, our chatan, will rejoice in our union as a perfect, unspoiled kallah.

May that great day arrive without delay.


How apt, this question is asked during Pesach, which commemorates when Hashem became our chatan.

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