Mishna Eruvin 3:9 discusses a disagreement on this question with regards to the two days of Rosh Hashana:
רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶן הַרְכִּינָס אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אוֹמֵר, הַחֲלִיצֵנוּ ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת יוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם לְמָחָר. וּלְמָחָר הוּא אוֹמֵר, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם אֶמֶשׁ. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:
Rabbi Dosa ben Harekinas says: One who passes before the ark in the synagogue and leads the congregation in prayer on the first day of the festival of Rosh HaShana says: Strengthen us, O Lord our God, on this day of the New Moon, whether it is today or tomorrow. And on the following day he says: Whether Rosh HaShana is today or yesterday. And the Rabbis did not agree with him.
The gemara (Eruvin 40a) explains the disagreement about saying the prayer conditionally. As it relates to Rosh Hashana, the Rabbis hold that you shouldn't phrase your prayer conditionally so that people won't come to treat one of the days as not yom tov. The same would be true for other yamim tovim.
Regarding the wording, and the question of how we could ask to bring the korban musaf, I don't see the problem: whether or not it's Pesach today, you can pray for the eventual bringing of the Pesach musaf in the future. And if the question is on the הזה, then it's no different then the above question regarding not phrasing our prayer conditionally.