Achashverosh ruled over all (majority) the Jews in the world in 127 provinces.

All the Jews reaccepted the covenant out of love (voluntarily)

“They stood beneath the mountain”: Rav Avidni bar Chama said, “This comes to teach us that G-d held the mountain over them like a barrel, saying: ‘If you accept the Torah, then fine, but if not, there will be your burial place…” Rava said, “Nevertheless, they reaccepted it (voluntarily) during Achashverosh’s days, as it says, ‘The Jews fulfilled and accepted’; they fulfilled that which they previously accepted”. (Tractate Shabbat 88a)

, so did complete teshuvah (debated) after being saved from extinction in Purim.

Given that the Jews did complete teshuvah (and additionally surely kept one or two Shabbatot in a row after these events) why weren't the Jews immediately redeemed?

Edit 1: Added sources for some statements and opposite views.

Edit 2: Original post statements were generally sourced (as far as I can remember from 4-5 years ago) from materials in Vedibarta Bam - Megilat Esther and Torah lectures from R Touitou (Ashdod) on Purim. Bli neder upon reviewing, I will add more precise sources to back up the more contentious original statements (Achashverosh ruled over all Jews, all Jews reaccepted the covenant and did teshuvah from love)

  • 3
    I think that's a great question. Could you bring sources about Jews doing complete teshuva?
    – Rabbi Kaii
    Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 15:14
  • 1
    I'm not sure everyone agrees that they "reaccepted the covenant w love" download.yutorah.org/2019/1053/…
    – rosends
    Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 15:45
  • 1
    We got to survive....that's not a kind of redemption? Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 16:43
  • Maybe the time for redemption was not there?
    – Shmuel
    Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 16:53
  • 1
    Yeah, this needs sources.
    – MichoelR
    Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 17:08

2 Answers 2


Here's part of the answer, that they still had to make Teshuvat haMishkal, a weighty substantive teshuvah

Likutei Halakhot Purim Halakha 1 Ot 3

And this is the thing that happens in every single era, and with every individual member of Yisrael, when he makes truly makes proper Teshuvah, because this a feature of Teshuvah, that a person who turns from the good path and has chosen for himself a part and parcel in the evil, God forbid - then it's impossible for him to have repair and come back to the good path - except by Teshuvah that is the aspect of Shabbat, the aspect of 'Alma d'Atei/the Coming World, as is brought, namely that he has to participate and be tested in that path that he had gone in, in the aspect of Teshuvat haMishkal ("weighty Teshuvah"), as brought above, namely he has to go back and walk and be in all those evil paths where he was before, breaking his craving and turning from them and avoiding them. He has to go via all those ways until he gets back to his place to the Em haDerekh (trailhead) the root of two paths, where everything is all good, and from there onwards they branch off and separate, two paths as mentioned, and this is the aspect of (Jer. 31:20) "Erect to yourself markers, set thee up signposts; put your heart to the highway, the path that you traveled" which is about Teshuvah as our rabbis z"l explained, that a person needs to put his heart to the highway and path that he went in before, going back and returning through it to Hashem Yitbarakh to the aspect of Teshuvah as mentioned. Therefore he has to erect markers for himself, so he doesn't stumble and err in them God forbid, since he has already erred in them, for they are utterly errant and confused ways. So he needs to guard himself very well and make himself signs and markers to not get captured in them, God forbid, any more. And this is "set thee up signposts (Tamrurim)," namely change (Tamrirut) of heart, as he endures and forbears at the time he's returning and going via the bitter paths to return by those paths to the trailhead as mentioned, so he needs to endure very great and hard bitterness until he passes through all those bitter ways to return to his path and to peace and wholeness to that trailhead, which is the aspeect of Binah, Alma d'Atei, which is the aspect of Teshuvah as mentioned. And this is why it's named Teshuvah, because that's where all the paths return and go back to their root, because there it's all good as mentioned. And the rule is, .. [translation needs continuation]

וְזֶה הַדָּבָר נַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר וְאֵצֶל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּשֶׁעוֹשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה בֶּאֱמֶת כָּרָאוּי, כִּי זֶה בְּחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁמִּי שֶׁנּוֹטֶה מִדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹב וּבָחַר לְעַצְמוֹ חֵלֶק וְגוֹרָל הָרַע חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, אֲזַי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיִּתְתַּקֵּן וְיָשׁוּב לַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹב כִּי אִם עַל-יְדֵי תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת שַׁבָּת, בְּחִינַת עָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי, כַּמּוּבָא, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא מֻכְרָח לְהִצְטָרֵף וּלְהִבָּחֵן בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַהִוא שֶׁהָלַךְ בּוֹ בִּבְחִינַת תְּשׁוּבַת הַמִּשְׁקָל, כַּמּוּבָא לְעֵיל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא מֻכְרָח לָשׁוּב וְלֵילֵךְ וְלִהְיוֹת בְּכָל אוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים הָרָעִים שֶׁהָיָה בָּהֶם מִקֹּדֶם, לְשַׁבֵּר תַּאֲוָתוֹ וְיִטֶּה מֵהֶם וְיָסוּר מֵהֶם צָרִיךְ לֵילֵךְ דֶּרֶךְ כָּל הַדְּרָכִים הָהֵם עַד אֲשֶׁר יָשׁוּב לִמְקוֹמוֹ אֶל אֵם הַדֶּרֶךְ שֹׁרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁשָּׁם כֻּלּוֹ טוֹב וּמִשָּׁם וָהָלְאָה מִתְפַּצְּלִין וּמְתְפָּרְדִין שְׁנֵי הַדְּרָכִים כַּנַּ"ל, וְזֶה בְּחִינַת הַצִּיבִי לָךְ צִיֻּנִים שִׂמִי לָךְ תַּמְרוּרִים שִׁתִי לִבֵּךְ לַמְּסִלָּה דֶּרֶךְ הָלַכְתְּ, שֶׁזֶּה קָאֵי עַל תְּשׁוּבָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לָשֹׁוּם לִבּוֹ לַמְּסִלָּה וְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָלַךְ בָּהּ מִקֹּדֶם לָשׁוּב וְלַחֲזֹר דֶּרֶךְ אוֹתוֹ לַשֵּׁם יִתְבָּרַךְ לִבְחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה כַּנַּ"ל. וְעַל-כֵּן צָרִיךְ לְהַצִּיב לוֹ צִיּוּנִים וְסִמָּנִים לְבַל יִכָּשֵׁל וְיִתְעֶה בָּהֶם חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, מֵאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר תָּעָה בָּהֶם, כִּי הֵם דְּרָכִים תּוֹעִים וּנְבוֹכִים מְאֹד. וְצָרִיךְ לִשְׁמֹר עַצְמוֹ מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ סִימָנִים וְצִיּוּנִים לְבַל יִלָּכֵד בָּהֶם, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, עוֹד. וְזֶהוּ שִׂמִי לָךְ תַּמְרוּרִים, דְּהַיְנוּ תַּמְרִירוּת הַלֵּב שֶׁסּוֹבֵל בְּעֵת שֶׁשָּׁב וְהוֹלֵךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַדְּרָכִים הַמָּרִים מְאֹד לָשׁוּב בְּדֶרֶךְ אוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים אֶל אֵם הַדֶּרֶךְ כַּנַּ"ל, וְצָרִיךְ לִסְבֹּל מְרִירוּת גָּדוֹל וְקָשֶׁה מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹר כָּל אוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים הַמָּרִים לָשׁוּב לְדַרְכּוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם אֶל אֵם הַדֶּרֶךְ הַנַּ"ל, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת בִּינָה עָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה כַּנַּ"ל. וְעַל שֵׁם זֶה נִקְרֵאת תְּשׁוּבָה, עַל-שֵׁם שֶׁשָּׁם שָׁבִים וְחוֹזְרִים כָּל הַדְּבָרִים לְשָׁרְשָׁם, כִּי שָׁם הוּא כֻּלּוֹ טוֹב כַּנַּ"ל. וְהַכְּלָל, שֶׁעִקַּר בְּחִינַת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהָשִׁיב וּלְהַחֲזִיר וּלְהַעֲלוֹת גַּם הַדֶּרֶךְ הַשְּמֹאל אֶל שָׁרְשׁוֹ כַּנַּ"ל, וְזֶה נַעֲשֶׂה עַל-יְדֵי שֶׁשָּׁב וְהוֹלֵךְ וְעוֹבֵר בְּאוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים כַּנַּ"ל, כִּי עַל-יְדֵי זֶה מַעֲלֶה הַחִיּוּת מִשָּׁם, דְּהַיְנוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת הַקְּדוֹשִׁים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְשָׁם עַל-יְדֵי עֲווֹנוֹתָיו וּמֵשִׁיב אוֹתָן לְשָׁרְשָׁם, שֶׁהוּא בְּחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה כַּנַּ"ל. וַאֲזַי כְּשֶׁשָּׁבִים כָּל הַדְּרָכִים הַמְקֻלְקָלִים לְשָׁרְשָׁם לִבְחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה הַנַּ"ל, אֲזַי שָׁם חוֹזְרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים מִכָּל הָעֲווֹנוֹת וְהַדְּרָכִים הָהֵם תּוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה בִּבְחִינַת חיל בָּלַע וַיְקִיאֶנּוּ כַּנַּ"ל. שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה מִזֶּה אֵשֶׁת חַיִל תּוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה כַּנַּ"ל, וְכֵן כָּתַב רַבֵּנוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, שֶׁמֵּעֲווֹנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּזְכּוּ לֶעָתִיד לִבְחִינַת תְּשׁוּבָה הָאֲמִתִּית, אֲזַי יִהְיֶה נַעֲשֶׂה מֵהֶם תּוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה:

  • Thank you for this. What a weighty concept this "Teshuvat haMishkal" - if I am understanding this correctly, one's need to be retested (have trials) in all one's previous turns to evil and show that your teshuvah is genuine? So if the main sin of the Jews of Shushan as I was taught in a lecture was that they disregarded one of the leading top Ravs of the generation Mordechai the Yehudi who was pleading w them not to attend the seudah of Achashverosh - the main haMishkal would be to follow the advice of the Gedolei Torah of today. Commented Feb 7, 2023 at 21:38
  • @DanielYaacov You're welcome. More precisely the Ikkar is to find and follow the spirit of the Tzaddik haEmet the Tzaddik haDor (the Essential Tzaddik of the Era) per Sifrei Breslev and the Tz' haEmet was in sequence the Five, Moshe Rashbi Arizal Besht R' Nachman who brought original new Torah teachings but clearly like you said Mord' manifested the Tz' Hador. And per Saba the Rebbe (Rosh Bnei Yisrael) is now Næ Næch, Næchma Næchman MeUman and if it's not Nanach then it's Sheker. Commented Feb 8, 2023 at 1:21
  • And Tzaddik haEmet is a very precise term, as are all the terms.. "There's no more Gedolim here, no more Katamin here, were all just Friends" said Sabba Y. Odesser Næ Næch Commented Feb 8, 2023 at 1:22
  • And yes T"HM is weighty however it's only one aspect so don't get stuck or worry about it. By attaching to the Tzaddik, the repairs are achieved. By being mkarev people to the Tzaddik, is another way. That's why you have Næ Næch mafitzim distributing the Sifrei Nanach dancing being happy all these and others also achieve one's Tikkun .. Happy Purim! Is it too early to say? Commented Feb 8, 2023 at 1:27
  • In fact, you see regarding T"HM that R' Nathan brought that you have to retrod back to the Em haDerekh. Well the Tzaddik is the Mother! Em haBanim semeichah etc and the Banim are the Marei Kabbalah who learn the Chokhmah as brought in Tikkunei Zohar (chicks, marei Mishna.. eggs, marei mikra) etc etc Commented Feb 8, 2023 at 1:33

The seventy years was not up. Consider the medrash that the celebration that Achashveirosh held and used the keilim of the Bais Hamikdash was because he thought that it was the end of the seventy years.

Had the Jews continued and all returned with Ezra they might have been redeemed fully.


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