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I was recently wondering what we should do if we accidentally began אתה חונן on Shabbat, although we have only said אתה, do we have to finish אתה חונן even on Fri night/Mincha (because they also start with אתה).

I was surprised to find out that SH paskins that even by Shacharit/Mussaf, we don't need to complete אתה חונן as it is considered a mistake (so long as it was because we weren't concentrating, as opposed to genuinely thinking it was a weekday at the moment of the error).

The Mechaber explicitly states:

אפילו אם הוא בתפל' שחרית שאינו פותחת באתה אינו גומר ברכת אתה חונן דחשבינן ליה כטעה בתפלת שבת בין זו לזו

This makes the following Rema difficult to understand because he says:

דהרי יכול לומר אתה קדשת או אתה אחד (תרומת הדשן סי' י"ד)

The lashon דהרי is of agreement, yet the content is of disagreement (the Rema seems to be saying we can only do this for Fri night/Mincha, as those are the two berachot he cites as his "could haves")

Can anyone explain this Rema?

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He's saying that even in Shacharis it's fine because it can be viewed as a mix-up between one Shabbos tefilla and another. The referenced תרומת הדשן spells it out more clearly:

אפילו בישמח משה שאינה פותחת באתה מ"מ חשבינן ליה כטעה בתפלה של שבת בין זו לזו דתיבת אתה נמי התחלת דתפלת שבת היא

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