This is a very general question, and I hope for some general answers. However, in order to focus it, I would like to specify one point.
In the secular world, the day starts with "waking up" and ends with "going to sleep" (not the calendar day, but more in the psychological sense). In the Torah world, the day starts while we are awake, we then go to sleep for the first portion of the "day", and then we wake up, then continue the same day.
Are there any sources that discuss the ramifications of that? If that's too general, I'd at least like to know what the psychological ramifications are - what type of person does the secular way produce, what type of person does the Torah way produce?