I'm not exactly sure what you mean by "does Judaism recognize this situation" since Ochlah v'Ochlah is an ancient Masoretic book (here is the relevant page, by the way), but there are a couple of old references to this linguistic switch. One is a Tannaitic midrash (Yalkut Shimoni on Nach 106):
"תני ר' שמעון בן יוחאי אומר...איש לאהליו ישראל ולא לבית המקדש, אל תקרי לאהליו אלא לאלוהיו."
Said Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai..."every man to his tents O Israel" and not to the Temple, don't read "to his tents" but "to his [Elohim]1".
Another is much later, from the Rishonic period, by the Rashba (Teshuvot HaRashba, Mossad HaRav Kook edition, p. 182). During a discussion of 18 verses that were changed because scripture itself modified the language (כנה הכתוב - kinah hakatuv), he brings this verse:
"אין לנו חלק בדוד ולא נחלה בבן ישי איש לאהליו ישראל. איש לאלוהיו היה צריך לומר אלא שכינה הכתוב."
"“We have no portion in David, no share in Jesse’s son, every man to his tent, O Israel!” every man to his [Elohim]1 was supposed to be said, but scripture modified the language."
What does "scripture modifying the language" mean according to Rashba? He writes (p. 177):
"וכן כתוב שם, י"ח דברים כתובים במקרא ואינם כתובין כתקון, וחכמי ישראל קורין אותן תקון סופרים. לא שתקנו אותן, שמחקו וכתבו, אלא מה שכתב משה רבינו ע"ה בתורה ומה שכתבו הנביאים בשאר ספרים, מתחלה מה שכתבוהו על כנוי כתבוהו. והסופרים לא חסרו ולא יתרו ורק ראוין להיקרות בכנוי כתבן."
"And so it is written there (a certain book he was discussing), 18 things are written in Scripture and not written as corrections and the sages of Israel read them like scribal corrections. Not that they corrected them, i.e., that they erased and rewrote, but rather that what Moshe Rabbeinu peace be upon him wrote in the Torah and what the prophets wrote in other books, from the onset they wrote them in modified form. And the scribes did not add or detract and these [words] are only meant to be read as they were written (unlike other words, not in this group of 18, that are not read as written)."
In other words, this is not a scribal correction but something that was implemented by the authors themselves.
1 I put in square brackets Elohim because the word is לאלוהיו - L'elohav and it's tricky to understand whether this means "their gods" or "their God", since God is referred to with the partially pluralistic Elokim many times over.